General guidelines exist to help determine the ideal body weight range for adult men and women of all frame sizes, including large-boned ¨C or large-framed — individuals. If you have a large frame, your ideal body weight is higher than that for individuals with small or medium frames. In addition to your frame size, your height and gender are also used to help determine your ideal body weight.
MedlinePlus provides guidelines to help determine if men are large boned, or have large frame sizes. Based on these recommendations, men are classified as large framed if they are over 5 feet 5 inches tall with a wrist circumference of more than 7.5 inches. Men of the same height are small framed if their wrist size is 5.5 to 6.5 inches around, and they have medium frames if their wrist is 6.5 to 7.5 inches around, according to MedlinePlus. Use a tape measure to measure the circumference of your wrist to determine if you have a small, medium or large frame size.
A woman¡¯s frame size is based on her height and wrist circumference. Women have large frames if they are under 5 feet 2 inches tall and their wrist circumference is over 5.75 inches, if they are 5 feet 2 inches to 5 feet 5 inches with wrist circumference over 6.25 inches, or if they are over 5 feet 5 inches tall with a wrist size of over 6.5 inches around, according to MedlinePlus. Women within each height category — with smaller wrist sizes ¨C are classified as either small- or medium-framed.
The University of Washington suggests that men should weigh 106 pounds for the first 5 feet of height plus 6 pounds for each inch of height over 5 feet ¨C plus 10 percent for men with large frame sizes. This method for determining ideal body weight is also known as the Hamwi formula. For example, a large-framed man who is 5 feet 10 inches tall has an ideal body weight of 183 pounds. A large-framed man who is 6 feet 2 inches tall has an ideal weight of 209 pounds.
According to the University of Washington, women should weigh 100 pounds for the first five feet of height plus 5 pounds for each additional inch over five feet ¨C plus 10 percent to account for large frame sizes. For example, a large-framed woman who is 5 feet 3 inches tall has an ideal body weight of 127 pounds. Women with large frames who are 5 feet 8 inches tall have ideal body weight of 154 pounds, using the same Hamwi formula.
If you¡¯re a bodybuilder, or an athlete who has a large amount of muscle mass, you might be heavier than the University of Washington¡¯s ideal body weight recommendations but still have a low body fat percentage; if so, you¡¯re not necessarily unhealthy or obese. Ask your doctor or a personal trainer to estimate your body fat percentage to make sure you¡¯re within an acceptable range. According to the American Council on Exercise, which provides an online body-fat calculator, female athletes usually have about 14 to 20 percent body fat, while male athletes generally have body fat percentages of 6 to 13 percent.
Throwing the ball is one of the most fundamental skills in football. Quarterbacks like to throw the ball farther so they can stretch the defense and complete long passes, which can help create a variety of options for the offense. To throw the football farther, quarterbacks must work to increase their arm strength. This can be accomplished using a variety of sport-specific and strength-building techniques.
Lift weights to strengthen the entire body, including the arms and shoulders. San Francisco City College strength coach John Balano advises quarterbacks to focus on strengthening the core, or abdominals, and the shoulder area.
Throw the ball as often as you can without pain and perform long toss where you gradually move back and throw the ball as far as you can. According to Cincinnati Bengals quarterback Carson Palmer, throwing is the best way to increase arm strength.
Use your legs as part of the throwing motion. Getting your legs involved gives you more power and, in turn, more distance and velocity on your throws. Instead of simply stepping and throwing, quarterbacks can take a skip or hop into their throw, which allows for more momentum and power. This is done by simply bringing the feet together at the end of the drop and hopping forward with the nonthrowing foot first as you release the ball.
Move the ball down to a lower throwing position and then work the ball back up as you release it. The proper release point for the football is high and near the ear, but by bringing the ball down or starting lower, you can build momentum and get extra yardage on your passes.
Foot irritation and pain are common problems. Our feet take a lot of abuse every day as we work, play, shop or exercise. A soothing foot bath at the end of the day is a way to pamper those hardworking feet. Foot bath solutions can help sooth away those aches, pains, and irritation, or help in the treatment of dry skin, callouses, or fungal infections.
A soothing herbal foot bath can soothe and refresh tired, achy feet. A cup of baking soda or a couple of tablespoons of Epsom or sea salts dissolved in hot water makes a good base for a herbal foot bath, to which any combination of herbs can be added. Spa Index recommends using 1/2 cup lavender flowers and 1/2 cup finely chopped fresh sage for tired feet. Brigitte Mars suggests chamomile flowers and catnip for swollen, achy feet and a little peppermint to stimulate tired feet or refresh hot ones. Dried herbs can be placed in a cloth bag, then steeped in a few cups of boiling water to make an herbal solution. Once the solution has cooled to a tolerable temperature for foot soaking, add it to your baking soda, Epsom or sea salt foot bath, grab a good book, and soak away the stress of the day.
Aromatherapy foot baths can sooth and refresh the feet, as well as offer all-over relaxation. These are simple to concoct at home using the same base ingredients as the herbal soak: baking soda, sea salt or Epsom salts dissolved in hot water. Add a few drops of essential oil, and you have a relaxing and moisturizing aromatherapy foot bath. Essential oils that are commonly used to sooth the feet are lavender, almond, sandalwood, peppermint, chamomile and spearmint. These can be used in any combination you like to sooth and refresh your tired feet. According to Simple Aromatherapy recipes, a foot bath with 12 drops of lavender essential oil, three drops of rose geranium essential oil, and a handful of dried rose petals will calm the nerves after a stressful day and relieve fatigue. For aching feet, Aromatherapy For recommends a foot bath using four drops of thyme and four drops of chamomile essential oils.
Antifungal foot baths can help in the treatment and prevention of fungal infections, such as athlete’s foot, as well as helping to prevent foot odor. Antifungal solutions for foot baths are available in the corner drug store, or you can make your own from natural ingredients. Apple cider vinegar or white vinegar are often used as natural antifungals, as are baking soda and Epsom salts. According to a study published in European Food Research and Technology, oregano and thyme proved to be strong antifungal agents when tested against a variety of molds. Some essential oils, such as thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove have been found to have antifungal and antibacterial properties as well.
Leaning wall pushups require little physical effort and you can do them just about anywhere. Even better, leaning wall pushups add muscle tone to your upper and lower body. You use your own body weight to perform the static exercise, and you can increase and decrease the degree of difficulty. You can do leaning wall pushups as a complete workout or do them to warm up for more rigorous exercise.
Leaning wall pushups are different from regular pushups. Instead of getting down on the floor in a horizontal position and balancing your body with your hands and feet, wall pushups allow you to stand straight up. Face the wall and place your palms against the wall. Keeping your hands on the wall, walk backwards until your arms are straight. Bend your elbows and bring your face close to the wall before pushing back to the original standing position. You can do 10 repetitions to begin and increase as you gain strength.
Standing an arm’s length from the wall and doing leaning pushups is a good way for beginners. As you continue the exercise, move your feet farther away from the wall. The added distance takes weight from your lower body and shifts it to the upper body. The weight transfer works your arms, shoulder and chest harder, building added strength and better muscle definition. Doing leaning wall pushups from 3 or more feet away also strengthens your biceps, triceps, forearms, wrists and hands.
Keeping your legs straight during leaning wall pushups works the muscles in the upper body. Bend your knees while keeping your feet flat on the ground to work your legs. Bending your knees helps stretch and tone the calves. Place one leg in front of the other while doing leaning wall pushups for more intense stretching. Start by putting your left leg forward, and you can feel the stretch while approaching and pushing back off the wall. Do the same exercise with your right leg. Working the legs with leaning wall pushups is an effective exercise before running or jogging.
According to the Sports Injury Clinic, adding a Swiss ball to leaning wall pushups is a good way to rehabilitate a shoulder injury. Place the Swiss ball on the wall and place your palms on the ball so it does not fall. Bend your elbows and move your body close to the ball without making contact. Push back and repeat the exercise to stretch and strengthen your shoulder and other upper body muscles.
Used to manufacture a variety of clothing, from swimsuits and tops to uniforms and coats, polyester is a versatile, strong and flexible synthetic fabric. However, one down side of white polyester is its tendency to yellow, which occurs for a variety of reasons, from perspiration stains to the minerals in your home’s water. Whatever the case, it’s possible to whiten your yellowed or drab polyester without damaging or weakening the fabric.
Fill a plastic bucket or basin with 1 gallon of lukewarm water. Add 1/2 cup oxygen bleach powder to the water. Stir the water with your hand or a large spoon to help dissolve and incorporate the oxygen bleach powder. Unlike traditional chlorine bleach, which can damage or degrade polyester, oxygen bleach is sodium percarbonate, which activates when combined with water to help lift the stains without causing any damage.
Submerge the polyester pants into the oxygen bleach mixture. Allow the polyester pants to soak in the oxygen bleach mixture for at least 30 minutes. If the yellowing or discoloration is severe, allow the pants to soak for 1 or 2 hours or longer.
Remove the polyester pants from the oxygen bleach powder solution and wring out any excess water. Load the polyester pants into the washing machine alone, or with other white polyester garments. Add liquid laundry soap according to the package’s label and 1/2 cup oxygen bleach powder to the washer before turning the unit on. Launder the clothing on the hottest setting recommended on the polyester pant’s label.
Allow the washing machine to run through all its cycles before removing the polyester pants. If you’re satisfied with the results, dry the pants according to the label’s directions. If not, run the pants through a second washing machine cycle on the hottest water possible, liquid laundry soap and 1/2 cup oxygen bleach powder.
All soccer fields are not created equal for a variety of reasons. In fact, the soccer fields used for international competition like the Olympics can be very different from the soccer fields used in local high school games. Olympic soccer fields are held to strict size and dimension requirements, while United States high school fields are given more leeway.
The governing body for international and Olympic soccer is the Federation Internationale de Football Association, or FIFA. The rules used during international play, including Olympic soccer, are FIFA rules. Each state in the United States governs high school play, but all U.S. high schools follow the National Federation of State High School Associations, or NFHS, rules. Many of the rules between the NFHS and FIFA are the same, but some, including field sizes, differ.
According to FIFA regulations, during international play, the length of the soccer field, also known as the touchline, must be at least 110 yards but no more than 120 yards. Most organizations use 120-yard fields for international play. For U.S. high school play, NFHS rules state that field length should be between 100 and 120 yards.
United States high school soccer fields must be between 55 and 80 yards in width, according to NFHS rules. Olympic soccer fields are required to be at least 70 yards wide and no more than 80 yards wide, according to the FIFA rule book. Most Olympic and international fields have widths of 80 yards.
Olympic and international fields meet and follow the FIFA maximum distances in most cases. The NFHS gives some room for amending the distances because in many cases, high schools in the United States do not have stadiums built specifically for soccer. NFHS rules state that goals should be at least 2 yards in front of football goalposts if games are played on a football field. That rule alone would limit the length of the field to a maximum of 116 yards on a football field. In addition, many high school fields do not meet FIFA width requirements because of running tracks or a lack of space. Some football fields have little to no room on the sideline, so soccer fields are limited in the amount of field they can have without running into the stands.
When football first arrived in America, it resembled the rugby-style game played in England. But with rule changes implemented in the late 19th and early 20th century by football star Walter Camp, football evolved into the game enjoyed by millions today. Integral elements of modern football, such as the touchdown, forward pass, downs and distance rules, were not part of the original game.
The earliest games of football were mostly unorganized college students playing traditional ¡°mob football,¡± similar to that played in England. Each group had its own set of rules. The underlying theme throughout the game was violence. In fact, its severity caused outrage among local citizens, forcing many cities to ban the game the 1860s. The first official football team formed in 1862 and played what was known as ¡°The Boston Game.¡± This form of football was spread throughout the 1860s through the help of the press.
Collegiate football become a legitimate program in 1876, when Columbia, Yale, Harvard and Princeton agreed on a standardized set of rules for the game. Yale refused to join the Intercollegiate Football Association at the meeting due to a disagreement over the number of players each group could field. Walter Camp, known as the father of football, introduced a series of rule changes in 1880, including lowering the number of players on the field, the line of scrimmage and snapping the football to the quarterback, which helped shape the current game of football. These rule changes on the collegiate level transformed the game from a variation of rugby to American football.
The first payment to a professional football player was in 1892. Paying a football player was considered unsportsmanlike; payments to players were kept secret. In 1895, the first fully professional game was played in Pennsylvania. The first National Football League, which has no ties to the modern league, began fielding teams in 1902. The World Series of Football took place in December 1902 at Madison Square Garden, but the series only lasted two seasons.
The earliest occurrence of youth football was in 1929 in Philadelphia. The Junior Football League was formed to keep teenage boys busy in sports, rather than vandalizing a local factory. By 1933, the league included 16 teams and was renamed the Pop Warner Conference after Temple head coach Pop Warner. The National Federation of State High School Associations, formed in 1920 to govern high school sports, established the first official high school football rules in 1932.
Strength training should be an important component of a serious runner’s workout. Building muscular strength, particularly in the legs, corrects muscle imbalances and helps create power. A regular strength-training program can also reduce the risk of injuries. You can weight-train during the off-season or year-around. If you are serious about running fast, however, it will probably be necessary to back off weight training during the competition season to prevent overtraining.
Develop a schedule that works for you. A break between workouts gives the body time to recover and may reduce the risk of overuse injuries and the chances of overtraining. Chris Carmichael, in “Outside Magazine,” recommends training in blocks. One example of a training block that allows you to build leg muscles for speed is to weight-train two days, rest one day and then do speed workouts for three days. This is just one example; the important thing is to work out a schedule that works for you, when you can make it to the gym and when you can run.
Integrate hill workouts into your running. Lifting weights is not the only way to build leg muscles. Hill workouts increase leg strength and power. “Running Times” recommends one or two hill workouts each week as part of a strengthening program.
Use big lifts, such as squats and deadlifts, that work multiple body parts, as the main component of the leg-building program. Complete the exercises at a weight that allows you to do six to 12 repetitions.
Follow up all workouts with a stretching routine. Increasing muscle mass will not improve performance if it comes at the expense of flexibility. It is important to stretch after each workout to maintain a full range of motion through the core, hips and knees.
Train your brain to use new muscle through short, fast repeats. Several times a week, run short, fast repeats. Ten repeats, about 20 seconds long, run at about 90 percent of your maximum speed, will train the brain and nervous system to recruit the leg muscles. Warm up thoroughly before you begin this workout and recover fully between each sprint. This is a mind-body workout, not a cardiovascular one.
Chyawanprash (CHY) is an herbal supplement that has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine, a holistic Indian system of natural healing. Commonly sold under the brand Dabur, CHY consists of over 40 different herbs and is prepared in a jam-like mixture made from gooseberries. While its producers claim a wide range of benefits, including improved immunity and memory, these claims are largely unsupported by evidence.
A study published in the March 2015 issue of “Indian Journal of Experimental Biology” found that CHY may help stimulate the body’s immune response. This study examined the impact of CHY on immune cells in a laboratory, and the cells exposed to CHY showed increased levels of proteins called cytokines, which help mount the body’s response to infection. In addition, CHY was shown to increase the elimination of infection-causing foreign bodies by cells called macrophages. This study suggests immune benefits; however, quality research is necessary to understand whether CHY can provide similar benefits in humans.
A study published in the 2011 issue of “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine” suggests that taking CHY may help prevent memory loss. In this animal study, mice who ingested CHY followed by an amnesia-causing medication were able to complete familiar tasks more quickly than mice who received the medication alone. However, mice who consumed CHY without the medication did not show any improvement in memory. The authors proposed that these benefits are related to CHY’s known antioxidant properties — antioxidants are substances that slow down or halt certain processes that lead to damage in the body. While this study may be promising, no research has been published corroborating these findings in humans.
A small study published in the March 2003 issue of “International Journal of Human Genetics” found that individuals who regularly smoked bidi, a high-nicotine cigarette common in India and Southeast Asia, had decreased coughing and improved appetite after being given CHY. The study also found fewer chromosomal abnormalities in certain types of white blood cells among smokers who also ingested CHY, indicating that the supplement may protect against genetic damage. CHY is a known source of vitamin C, an antioxidant. A study published in the February 2001 issue of “Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology” attempted to determine whether CHY provided benefits in addition to those related to its vitamin C content. Researchers compared 5 men who received CHY and 5 men who received vitamin C, and by the end of an 8-week period, CHY supplementation was linked to a greater decrease in blood glucose and larger improvement in cholesterol levels when compared to individuals taking vitamin C. While these study results are intriguing, larger studies and higher-quality research are needed before these benefits can be confirmed.
Although CHY has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years and has many touted health benefits, little evidence exists to support these health claims. The limited regulation of dietary supplements also poses challenges, as the formulations of CHY may differ according to the brand. While the Dabur brand prepares CHY one way, other suppliers may add other ingredients such as gold or silver as a way to promote their product, according to a description of CHY’s formulation in the October 2013 issue of “Journal of Medicinal Plants Research.” This can pose safety concerns, and because it contains a mixture of many different herbs, CHY may have interactions with prescription medications or other supplements. A doctor should be consulted with questions or concerns prior to beginning any supplement regimen, so the benefits and risks can be addressed.
You may experience painful and disruptive foot cramps while exercising or sleeping. Mineral or electrolyte deficiencies, poor circulation, obesity and alcohol consumption may also cause a foot cramp; as well as dehydration, improper footwear and muscle fatigue. Injuries such as plantar fasciitis, a muscle strain or pinched nerve also can lead to foot cramps. Although treatment may vary depending on the cause, stretching while suffering from a foot cramp can help alleviate pain and may prevent future cramps.
The foot bend and foot pointer stretches lengthen or stretch the soft tissue on the bottom of the foot and the top of the foot, respectively. For the foot bend, start in a seated position with your legs crossed, affected leg on top. With your hand, gently pull back on your toes. If you cannot reach your foot, use a towel or resistance band. In the same start position, perform the foot pointer, but instead push your foot forward or down. Hold stretches for 15 to 30 seconds and repeat three times daily.
The transverse arch is along the ball of the foot, and stretching the muscles that support the arch may alleviate cramping. In a seated position with your legs crossed and affected foot on top, grasp your foot on either side, placing your fingers over the ball of your foot. With both hands, push down or forward on your foot to expose the knuckles of your toes, pull back and repeat. Repeat five to 10 times several times daily.
Calf stretches can prevent tight calf muscles, which can pull on the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia and lead to foot cramps. Standing with a staggered stance or lunge stance, lean forward, keeping your back heel on the floor; you should feel a stretch in the calf of the back leg. You also may stretch your calf in a seated position with your legs straight, and pulling your feet toward you using a towel or resistance band. Hold stretches for 15 to 30 seconds and repeat three times daily.
When you are having a severe foot cramp, static stretches may be too uncomfortable. Active stretches such as ankle circles and toe curls may be more comfortable than holding a position. Stretching may help alleviate the foot cramp, but unless muscle tightness is the cause, they will not prevent future foot cramps. You can include ice, heat, massage and strengthening exercises in foot cramp treatments, depending on the cause or injury. Consult your physician if you suffer from chronic or worsening foot cramps.