In 1891, soccer referees moved from the touchlines onto the field of play. This brought about a new development: the introduction of a linesman, or assistant referee, on each touchline. The linesman¡¯s role has remained fundamentally the same since that time. It is his duty to assist and advise the referee from the touchline, with a particular focus on specific aspects of the game.
The linesman decides when the ball has gone out of play. She is able to look directly along both the touchline and goal line, something that the referee is normally unable to do. When the whole of the ball has left the field, the linesman raises her flag to signal the need for a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick.
When the ball leaves the field of play, the linesman decides which team is entitled to the ensuing throw-in, goal kick or corner kick. As with all other refereeing decisions, the referee himself has the final word and can overturn the linesman¡¯s decision if deemed necessary.
The linesman raises his flag when he spots a player in an offside position. This is one of his most difficult tasks. It often involves a split-second decision in a potentially match-winning situation.
When a manager or coach wants to make a substitution, she will inform the linesman in charge of the touchline closest to the team dugout or technical area. It is then the linesman¡¯s duty to inform the referee of the requested change.
Keeping one eye on 22 players is an impossible task for the referee. The linesman, therefore, acts as a second pair of eyes. It is his duty to indicate when an incident occurs out of the referee¡¯s view. According to the Football Referee website, the referee is expected to act on the linesman¡¯s advice regarding incidents that he did not witness himself.
If the referee believes the linesman had a better view of an incident, she will consult with the linesman to determine the correct course of action.
The linesman has two key duties during penalty kicks, both of which involve looking along the goal line. He must first decide whether the goalkeeper moved off the goal line before the penalty-taker kicked the ball. He must then decide whether the whole ball crossed the goal line.
Linesmen rarely enter the field of play, remaining on the touchline for most of the game. If needed, a linesman can enter the field of play to assist the referee during free kick procedures, specifically to help enforce the 10 yards law. Linesmen also help the referee when scuffles or fights occur. According to the FIFA Laws of the Game, the nearest assistant referee may enter the field of play to assist the referee in situations of mass confrontation.
Running and jogging can place impact and strain on your joints — particularly if you are practicing improper form while engaging in either activity. Signs you may not be practicing proper form include pain in the knees, hips or back after running or soreness in the heel. By taking steps to correct your running form, you may find you run faster and with less pain.
Runners make common form errors that can lead to increased injury risk and pain, according to Mike Antoniades, a speed and conditioning coach interviewed for BBC Sport. Some of Antoniades common mistakes include putting too much bounce into your run, taking strides that are too large, landing too hard on your feet or failure to use your arms to propel you forward. Other common technique problems include jogging at a slower pace than when walking or twisting excessively from side to side. If possible, observe yourself running in a mirror. If you observe these technique errors, take steps to correct them.
How your foot strikes the ground when running or jogging can affect proper running form. Start by concentrating on how the foot lands. The ball of your foot should hit the ground while the toes are pointing slightly downward — not parallel to the ground. The foot should land lightly and then start to move backward toward your heel. Imagine your foot is gently scraping the surface instead of firmly planting on it. Your heel should not fully touch the ground. If it does, you may be running too slowly. Imagine that your legs are on an imaginary cycle — much like an elliptical machine — and you must keep the rhythm.
Your hips and legs ¨C especially your powerful quadriceps ¨C help propel you forward. You should not experience a lot of side to side hip or waist movement. This prevents you from twisting the back. Keep the back straight and relaxed and while you may naturally lean slightly forward, to avoid lower back pain do not hinge forward too far at the waist.
The final parts of proper running form are your chest, arms, head and shoulders. If you keep the back relaxed, this will help relax the shoulders as well. Bend your arms at your elbows, moving the arms comfortably from the shoulders. You can hold your palms in, and if you prefer to make a fist, refrain from letting the fist tighten — this can affect your breathing. Your head should rest over your neck with your eyes looking forward — not down on the ground.
Breathing through your mouth and allowing your diaphragm to lift and retract for deep “belly breathing” will enhance your endurance. The bonus of diaphragmatic breathing is, that when you exhale, your abs contract and give your mid-section a little isometric workout. If erratic breathing is your bugaboo, then practice breathing patterns. Inhale as you take two steps and exhale for the next two. Depending on your lung capacity, you may be able to stretch those inhalations and exhalations over more than two steps.
Soccer requires quick feet and agility. During games, you not only have to run up and down the expansive field to cover as much ground as possible, but you rely heavily on short, explosive movements and acceleration to beat defenders. Quick feet will also help you dribble the ball, pass and shoot. Performing a few simple drills can improve foot speed and enhance your overall game.
Place eight to 10 soccer balls in a straight line, with about 2 feet between the balls. Stand with your right foot on top of the first ball and your left foot to the outside. Jump and switch feet, placing your left foot on the ball and your right foot to the outside. Race to the next ball and repeat, starting with the right foot on the ball. After the last ball, sprint 10 yards. Try to complete the line as fast as possible to build foot quickness.
The soccer ball shuttle drill improves foot speed and strengthens endurance. Line up eight soccer balls 10 yards away from the starting line. On the whistle, sprint over and collect a ball, dribbling it back across the starting line. Stop the ball as soon as it crosses the line and then run back to get the next one. Bringing back all eight balls completes the drill. Drive hard throughout the drill for maximum benefit.
For this drill, position four cones in a T-shape, the top three cones in a straight line with 5 yards between cones and the starting cone 10 yards straight below the middle cone. Starting at the base cone, sprint the 10 yards to the middle cone and then shuffle sideways to the far left cone. Shuffle all the way across to the far right cone. After shuffling back to the middle cone, spin and sprint back to the starting point.
Set the cones in a square pattern with 10 yards between cones. On the whistle, sprint from cone 1 to cone 2. Plant and make a sharp cut so you can then sprint diagonally to cone 3. Sprint to cone 4. Plant, cut and sprint diagonally back to cone 1. Finish the square as fast as possible, building up until you can run it three or more times in a row.
You’ll need a teammate for this drill. Mark off a large area of the field and have your teammate run wherever he wants. Your job is to stay within 2 yards of him at all times. Your teammate should change direction as much as possible and vary his pace, speeding up and slowing down in an attempt to lose you. After about five minutes, you can change roles, with your teammate now having to follow you.
Big numbers have lit up football scoreboards throughout the sport¡¯s history. From lopsided blowouts to high-scoring shootouts, it¡¯s clear not every game can be a defensive, field position battle. Here is a look at some of the highest-scoring games in the history of the gridiron, from the pros to high school.
On Nov. 27, 1966, the Washington Redskins and New York Giants put up 113 points in a shootout that ended in a 72-41 Washington victory. The teams combined to score 16 touchdowns, nine of which came from beyond 30 yards. The game¡¯s only field goal came in the closing seconds of the game, when Charlie Gogolak, who had missed two kicks the previous week and had an extra point blocked earlier in the game, put the finishing touches on Washington’s 31-point victory with a 23-yard chip shot. After the game, Washington¡¯s head coach Otto Graham joked, ¡°It was a great defensive battle.¡±
On Nov. 10, 2007, the U.S. Naval Academy and the University of North Texas posted 136 points in Navy¡¯s 74-62 win. A month earlier, Boise State University and the University of Nevada, Reno also scored 136 points, but it took four overtimes for the Broncos to seal their 69-67 win. Two weeks prior to that game, Weber State University and Portland State University set the all-time record for total points scored, with Weber State winning 73-68. On the same day as the Navy and North Texas matchup, Hartwick College beat Utica College 72-70 in four overtimes to set the NCAA’s all-division record for most points scored in a game. The Division II record is held by North Park University and North Central College. North Park steamrolled North Central by a score of 104-32 in their 1968 match-up.
The NCAA did not start keeping official records until 1937. Otherwise, Georgia Tech¡¯s dismantling of Cumberland College would be hailed as the biggest blowout in college football history. Georgia Tech scored 63 points in each of the game’s first two quarters on its way to a staggering 222-0 shutout. Astonishingly, neither team recorded a first down in the game, as Georgia Tech scored on one of the first three plays of every drive and Cumberland lost 28 yards in total.
The 222-point tally scored by Georgia Tech falls short of what Haven High School managed to do in 1927. The Kansas powerhouse hung 256 on in-state rival Sylvia High School. Elvin McCoy scored 13 of the team¡¯s 38 touchdowns and kicked 12 extra points, accounting for 90 points. In fairness to Sylvia, Haven outscored its other seven opponents 323-0 that year and its narrowest margin of victory was 27 points.
As a youth basketball coach, before each game or practice, it¡¯s important to review the plays and to make sure everyone knows their role. Just as important; however, is a team warm-up. Conducting a few basketball-specific drills helps your young players prepare mentally and physically. Warm-up drills can also help your team play at their best skill level and keep them injury free.
To get your team prepared to play basketball, it’s important to have them warm up their legs. Since your players will be running up and down the court, one of the best drills is to run the baselines. Have your players start off at the baseline, run to the near free-throw line, turn around and return to the baseline. Instruct them to run to midcourt and back, and then run to the far free-throw line and back. Finally, have them run from the near baseline to the far baseline and back. Allow them a one-minute break and repeat. This drill should get your players’ legs and cardiovascular system ready for basketball.
Start with one of your players at the right baseline, about 18 feet from the basket. Have him take five jump shots from that distance and then move to the right elbow — the extended part of the foul line — and take five shots from that distance. After the five shots, instruct him to move to the top of the key and take another five shots. He continues to do the same from the left elbow and the left baseline. Have all your players perform the drill to prepare them for taking shots from all over the court.
One of the hardest things for young players to learn is how to dribble properly. Dribbling practice is essential for building confidence and helping your players improve in this critical area. Set up five cones past midcourt, each one about 3 feet apart. Have one of your players dribble to the right of the first cone, the left of the second cone, the right of the third cone and then continue on in that manner. When he has dribbled past the fifth cone, have him speed-dribble back to the midcourt line and hand the ball to a teammate who then does the drill.
Have your players perform the rapid fire drill to warm up and practice their passing. Each player has a ball and stands 3 feet from a wall. On your command, each one throws a hard chest pass against the wall, catches the ball after it rebounds and quickly throws another pass against the wall. As your players continue, have them slowly back up until they are about 12 feet from the wall. At this point, they continue, but slowly move forward until they are 3 feet from the wall. You can have them mix in some over-the-head passes or one-handed passes.
The career of the average NFL player tends to be short. The National Football League is extremely competitive, so players must compete hard to keep their jobs against new players entering the league every year. The injury rate among NFL players is also extremely high. Careers often end suddenly when players can no longer perform at a high level.
According the the NFL Players Association, the average career of an NFL player is 3.3 years. The players left the NFL for a variety of reasons. These include injury, retirement and being cut by their team.
The shortest careers among NFL players tends to be those who hit and get hit the most during games and practice. Running backs have the shortest average careers of just 2.57 years. Wide receivers have average careers of 2.81 years. The average career for cornerbacks is 2.94 years.
The longest careers among NFL players tends to be those who are hit the least. Kickers and punters have the longest careers, averaging 4.87 years. Quarterbacks are next with an average career of 4.44 years.
It is no coincidence that the highest salaries tend to go to NFL players with the shortest careers. Many players hold out for larger payouts arguing that they have only a short amount of time to make money in the NFL. The exception to this is quarterbacks. They tend to make among the highest salaries while still having longer careers. One reason for this is that quarterbacks require the longest training period of any position in football–many spend the first few years of their careers on the bench.
According to the NFL Players Association, NFL players with college degrees make between 20% and 30% more than players who left school early to enter the NFL. The NFLPA also reports that players with degrees have careers that last about 50% longer than those without degrees. This is because most NFL players need the time in college to mature.
Most hitting and physical contact in football happens on the line of scrimmage. There are three offensive line positions: the center, the two guards and the two tackles. Each position faces a different type of player on the defensive line, but linemen generally need to be large, strong and agile. Lineman need to eat to gain strength and mass, but train hard to keep solid muscle and foot speed.
The left offensive tackle is typically matched up with the opponent’s best pass-rushing defensive lineman. Pass rushers in the NFL typically weigh around 260 pounds, and are extremely quick off the line. If the tackle is not strong enough or quick enough to block this player, his quarterback will absorb a devastating blind-side hit that may cause him to fumble the ball. Offensive linemen are hit at least once every play and must be in great shape to sustain this through a three-hour football game.
Linemen need to be large, but eating the wrong type of foods to gain that body shape will slow you down and cause health problems. Ron McKeefery, strength coach for the University of South Florida football team, had his offensive linemen improve their diet to make them faster off the line and increase their mobility, according to Alan Dell at the “Herald-Tribune” website. Previously the players had a tendency to eat a lot of fried foods. Educating the players on diet was critical to making them better players. The starting offensive linemen lost over 40 pounds combined and more than 10 percent of body fat.
Offensive linemen, especially at the college and professional level, experience difficulty when trying to stay above 300 pounds, the typical size for many linemen at the elite level. According to former Penn State lineman A. Q . Shipley, the diet necessary to keep his weight up included eating six eggs for breakfast, over 8 ounces of meat for lunch and nearly 20 ounces of meat for dinner, along with plenty of whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Shipley says that linemen need to take in close to 5,000 calories a day to keep up with the workouts and training.
If you’re an offensive lineman, keep your strength up by lifting weights. If you’re trying to lift heavy loads, ask one or more teammates to spot you. When run-blocking, you need not only strength, but agility to get out of your stance quickly, according to the website Hawg Tuff. Practice this with your fellow offensive linemen by getting into your stance. The coach needs to play the part of quarterback in this drill, getting behind the center. When he calls out the snap count, explode out of your stance and quickly move five yards forward.
As with run-blocking, you need to get out of your stance quickly. Hawg Tuff explains that an effective pass blocking drill has you working against a defensive lineman. The defender initially tries to rush past you to one side only. When you’re ready for a bigger challenge, give the defender the freedom to fake inside and go outside or vice versa. This gives you practice at pass-blocking, and gives your teammate practice on his pass-rushing technique at the same time.
Improve your overall physique and physical well-being with a dynamic, high-intensity workout regimen like CrossFit. According to a 2013 study posted by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the vigorous training offered by CrossFit-based workouts improves overall body composition and fitness level, not just for men, but also for women. Incorporate daily CrossFit-type exercises into your workouts at home or at a credentialed CrossFit gym.
The fitness regimen CrossFIt, is defined by its developer, Coach Greg Glassman, as a program that optimizes your fitness through teaching and utilizing “varied functional movements performed at relatively high intensity,” notes CrossFit.com. The variable movements combined with fast-pace exercise repetitions is a major element in this type of workout program. The diversity offered in a CrossFit workout cannot be simplified as one type of exercise and it also involves variability in timing for each total workout of the day, or WOD, that is completed.
Metabolic conditioning, gymnastics movements and Olympic-style weightlifting occur in the CrossFit workouts. Master the foundational movements and then include weight to optimize your muscle tone and cardiovascular conditioning. Common functional moves with weight include variations of the squat using a barbell overhead or in a front hold position; the power clean into an overhead shoulder press, or push press; the snatch; and kettlebell swings. For safety, work with a certified level-1 CrossFit coach to understand methodology, technique and workout sequences and before including weighted movements at home. A major bonus of CrossFit exercise is that you do not necessarily need equipment to get an intense workout each day. Foundational movements, done with correct form, are a key component of the program and simply require you to use your body weight for resistance. Foundation moves include air squats; push-ups; burpees; sprints, or 400-meter runs; and sit-ups.
Common terms used to signify variability of the actual workout time and repetitions can include AMRAP, or as many rounds/repetitions as possible; Tabata, which is an interval method of 20 seconds of one movement to 10 seconds of rest — for eight rounds — totaling four minutes; or a specified set of exercises done in a specified set of rounds for the best time. Timed exercise movements encourage you to amp up your pace in the workout to get the most cardiovascular benefit in a short amount of time. Setting a time cap to each full workout increases the challenge of completing all movements.
In five rounds, engage the following exercises for best time: run 200 meters; squat 10 times without weight, or air squat; and complete 10 push-ups. The total work that you will conduct is a 1000 meters of running, 50 squats and 50 push-ups. Do a proper air squat by starting in standing position with your feet slightly wider than hip-width apart. Lower your body, keeping your knees from collapsing inward as your bottom pushes towards the ground. With tightened abdominals, maintain an upright torso and, if necessary, raise your hands towards the sky to prevent your chest from caving to your knees. Once your thighs are parallel or close to parallel to the floor, push upwards through your heels and back into the standing position.
In as many rounds as possible with a 20-minute time cap, complete 25 sit-ups, 20 walking lunges, five pull-ups and a 400-meter run. For an additional challenge in the lunge, include weight in the form of a dumbbell or kettlebell. In CrossFit, basic-strength standards are defined for women verses men, notes CrossFit.com. As a beginner performing a weighted move, it is best to use a manageable weight, starting low to safely build strength. A trained CrossFit coach or charts posted on CrossFit.com can help define the right weight for you. “Prescribed” weight is the standard for a well-conditioned intermediate female, whereas the term “scaled” refers to weight that is less than the prescribed amount but what you are able to use to complete the workout.
Using Tabata intervals, complete four minutes of squats, four minutes of push ups and four minutes of toes-to-bar from the floor. The motion of toes-to-bar from the floor involves lying flat on your back with your legs straight and your arms extended above head, gripping a weighted 35-pound barbell to maintain stability and prevent your upper body from coming off the floor. The barbell is not intended to be lifted, rather it helps maintain form. Bring your feet towards the bar, maintaining a flat back on the floor but bringing your bottom off the ground once your straightened legs reach the bar, thus allowing your toes to touch. Return to the starting position and repeat for maximum reps during the Tabata interval.
It’s not just a matter of hot-dogging it on the football field during weekend games for a player. The game itself is beautiful, challenging and fun, yet it carries responsibilities. You will need to take care of your conditioning, show respect for team policies and understand your role down to the last detail to make the strongest contribution to the team.
Football players must understand the roles and tasks their position is involved with in the coaches’ scheme. You should learn the skills involved with your position and understand what exactly you are being asked to do for the success of the team. For example, you may be asked to be an option-run quarterback more than a passing quarterback. You must then work on speed, quick decision-making abilities and ball handling.
You must know the playbook and what you’re supposed to do on each play call. Players cause errors and create missed play assignments If they do not know what they should be doing on each play. So even if a player possesses the most incredible athleticism, their abilities cannot be optimally used if they cannot be depended on to know each play. You must know responsibilities as well as plays. For example, offensive lineman must know blocking responsibilities for various run plays to prepare for different defensive looks. A common blocking responsibility entails checking whether a defender is in your blocking gap, directly in front of you, over the area the ball is heading towards and following the linebacker. Going down this checklist lets a lineman know who he should block specifically — rather than saying they block the defensive tackle or end — because it may be different each time that particular play is called depending on the defensive look.
You must adhere to protocols and policies set forth by the organization or school they play for. Not maintaining a minimum grade-point average, getting in trouble with the law or breaking substance abuse policies for example can have you suspended from games or kicked off the team entirely. Each school, institution, organization and coach has rules to abide by. Bruce Brown, author of “Teaching Character Through Sport: Developing a Positive Coaching Legacy,” states that the main components of most policies and rules is that a player must demonstrate discipline, respect and integrity.
Football demands a high level of physical fitness to succeed. Being faster, stronger and more agile than your opponent — and your teammates — allows for an increased chance of team success. If a player is not conditioned enough to last in a game, his skills essentially become useless. Many coaches provide training and conditioning programs that the players are responsible for during the offseason.
A modern version of an old English game named shovelboard, outdoor shuffleboard is generally associated with senior citizens due to its prevalence at senior centers and relative ease of play. Yet the game contains elements of strategy and competition that make it appropriate for all ages. The National Shuffleboard Association sets the rules for the competitive version in the United States. There is an indoor shuffleboard, but it’s played on a table. The outdoor game is played on a painted court.
A standard outdoor shuffleboard court is a rectangle 52 feet long by 10 feet wide. Each end has a baseline and a triangle divided into five sections, each marked with a certain number of points. Below the triangle is an area marked ¡°10 Off.¡± ¡°Dead lines¡± mark the 12 foot section in the middle. Each player needs a set of colored discs 6 inches in diameter and between 9/16 inch and 1-inch thick. Yellow and black are the traditional colors, but other colors are acceptable. Each player also needs a cue, a pole with two prongs at the end. The cue may be no longer than 6 feet, 3 inches.
Shuffleboard is played in half-rounds. For each half-round, the players alternate using the cue to slide discs from the 10-Off section of one end of the court toward the scoring triangle at the other end. Yellow plays first. Discs that don’t reach the far dead line, or slide past the 10 Off section, are removed from play, as are those that are played illegally. The other discs stay in play. The goal is to score points with your own discs while knocking your opponent¡¯s discs into the 10 Off area or keep him from scoring.
Scores are tallied at the end of each half-round. Players get the marked number of points for any disc fully within a section of the scoring triangle. Discs that rest on a line are not scored. Deduct 10 points for any disc that sits within the 10 Off area. The game continues until one player reaches 75 points. Once that happens, play continues until the end of the half-round. If the other player also reaches or exceeds 75 points, the one with the highest score at the end of the half-round wins.
The National Shuffleboard Association maintains a long list of penalties for tournament play. In more casual games, penalties are generally limited to offenses that directly affect the score of the half-round. For example, Washington State¡¯s Crestview Condos penalizes its players for playing an opponent¡¯s disc, leaning over the baseline while shooting, and allowing a disc to touch the 10 Off line before playing that disc. Discuss the penalties you will use with your opponent before the game begins.