Good Workout Routines for 13-Year-Old Boys

Exercise is vital for 13-year-old boys for both physical and mental development. It is important to encourage physical activity at this age because it can turn into a habit that will last a lifetime. Sports can be a great way for a 13-year-old boy to get enough physical exercise each day, as they are interactive, fun and social. Weight training is another possibility for teens, but certain restrictions must be taken into consideration so that it is safe for growing bodies.
A 60-minute period of walking, jogging or running — three days per week — should to start with a warm-up session of walking for five to 10 minutes before slowly increasing speed to a jog or running pace. This can continue for 45 minutes, with short breaks if needed, and be followed by a cool-down with a five- to 10-minute walk. This can also be done in a sports setting, such as soccer practice, or can be broken up into shorter segments throughout the day.
Bike riding is an activity that most teenagers enjoy, and it provides an excellent aerobic workout in addition to being a fun and recreational. After stretching of legs, arms and back muscles for five minutes, a slow ride for five to 10-minutes serves as a warm-up of muscles and to build the heart rate. After that, a moderate to vigorous pace for 30 to 45 minutes should be followed by a cool-down period of five to 10 minutes of slow biking or walking.
Teens should warm-up for plyometric exercises by jogging for five to 10 minutes. Thirteen-year-olds should begin doing plyometrics for a short time period and gradually work their way to a longer routine. This should be done on two non-consecutive days per week. A good beginner’s routine would involve an upper-body exercise, such as chest passes or overhead passes with a medicine ball. That might be followed by a lower-body exercise, such as double-leg jumps or box jumps. The routine may include six to 10 repetitions of one to three sets of each exercise per session. This should be followed by a five-minute cool-down walk or jog.
Yoga is a good exercise for 13-year-old boys because it helps them stay flexible, increases muscle and bone strength, and often raises levels of mindfulness in day-to-day life. An example of a simple yoga routine begins with a Mountain pose, moves to the Tabletop pose, then on to Downward-Facing Dog. Child’s pose helps the boys rest for a moment before moving into Warrior Two pose. From there, they may move into Tree, Bridge and — finally — Corpse pose to relax for a few minutes before ending the session. Teens should be reminded to breathe during the poses.
Thirteen-year-old boys who have gone through puberty can safely engage in a strength-training routine utilizing their own body weight for resistance. This should be done three times per week for approximately 30 minutes per session. Teens should begin with a five to 10-minute warm-up consisting of walking, jogging or another cardio activity at an easy pace. Exercises in the strength-training session should include push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups, bicycle crunches, step-ups, tricep dips, back extensions, lunges and squats. Boys should start by doing one set of 15 repetitions of each exercise and work their way to three sets of eight to 16 repetitions of each exercise. An experienced fitness professional should supervise the exercises to ensure proper form until no longer necessary.

Simple Basketball Rules for Kids

As people get older, the technicalities of sports get strict and the rules change from letting it slide to calling everything. There are basic rules that children need to learn before attempting to understand the higher level of play. Knowing these rules will help you teach your child the fundamentals of basketball.
All basketball courts are played on a huge rectangle. You or the ball are not allowed to touch outside the lines of the rectangle. This term is called out of bounds. The ball is thrown in from out of bounds, but once the ball is in play, it cannot return there. If you do not have the ball, you can step over the line without any penalties.
In order to move with the ball, you must dribble it. A dribble is the term used when you bounce the ball and walk with it without picking it up or using both hands. If you use both hands or pick it up and dribble again, it is called double dribble and the other team gets the ball. A good dribble is achieved by keeping the hand on top of the ball.
In order to score, the ball must go through the basket. There are three places a person can shoot from, for different points. If you are standing behind the three point line, which is the big arc around the basket, and make it in the basket, you earn three points. All other places in front of the arc are worth two points. The third place is from the free throw line. If you were fouled and you are shooting free throws, each free throw is worth one point.
A foul is when you make contact with the person with the ball. If you are guarding someone with the ball, you are not allowed to touch or hit them. A foul can also be committed away from the ball. Shoving, hitting, tripping are all fouls also. None of these is allowed in basketball.
If you are dribbling the ball, then you decide to pick the ball up, you are only allowed one step. The foot that you choose not to step with must remain on the floor. If you move the other foot, it is considered traveling, and that is illegal. Traveling results in the other team getting the ball. The only option you have once you pick up the ball is to pass it or pivot. Pivoting means, you can circle around and rotate your planted foot, but it cannot slide or come off the ground.

Body Mass Index Advantages and Disadvantages

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a statistical measure of an individual’s scaled weight according to his/her height. It is a simple index of weight-for-height and is widely used by medical, health and fitness professionals to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults.
BMI is calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height (in meters) squared. The World Health Organization defines overweight as having a BMI value of 25.0 to 29.9, while a BMI of greater than 30 is considered obese. A BMI value of 18.5 to 24.9 is generally considered normal, and a BMI less than 18.5 is defined as underweight. The cutoff points were chosen as a result of numerous research studies, both observational and epidemiologic in nature, which relate BMI to risk of disease and premature death. For children and adolescents, weight status must be determined by comparing the child’s BMI with age- and gender-specific values (BMI growth curves).
BMI is generally considered the best way to determine if an individual is at a healthy weight. Using BMI is popular because it is simple, quick, effective and applies to adult men and women, as well as children. BMI is a useful tool for quickly assessing weight classification. While it does not directly measure body fat, it is more accurate at approximating degree of body fatness than weight alone. In addition, you do not have to be of an exact weight or measurement, to be considered ‘normal.’ There is a range within each classification to allow for different body types and shapes. For example, you can be 10 to 15 pounds heavier than a same height counterpart and still fall within a normal weight range.
BMI has limitations. Because it is not a measure of body fatness, very muscular individuals often fall into the overweight category when they are not overly fat. Additionally, BMI may place individuals who have lost muscle into the healthy weight category. Measuring BMI for very short people or pregnant women is not appropriate. It is believed that excessive abdominal fat is more health threatening than hip or thigh fat. A woman with a waist circumference greater than 35 inches and a man with a waist circumference of greater than 40 inches may be at an increased risk for developing high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. Therefore, the National Institute of Health (NIH) has asked physicians to measure patients’ waistlines.

Are There Disadvantages of Girls and Boys Playing Together in Sports?

Participating in sports encourages physical activity, improves mental health and teaches teamwork. But, some people might think gender-segregated sports teams send the wrong message to kids by keeping boys and girls separate. However, coed sports teams present a number of challenges for the kids and coaches alike, and those should be seriously considered before merging male and female athletes onto the same team.
Sports teams are often divided by age, weight or skill level, depending on the league. High schools will have varsity and junior varsity teams to distinguish skill level, and community recreation teams usually divide players up by age. Boys and girls of the same age likely have different skill levels. Boys are usually taller and stronger than girls, which can give them an advantage on the playing field. If girls are on the same team as them, they might not perform as well as they could on an all-girls team, where they would be up against players with a similar skill set.
Boys and girls might be more comfortable playing sports with the same sex. Boys might fear being too aggressive with girls on the playing field. From a social perspective, they might fear failing in front of girls who they like socially. Girls, on the other hand, might be more timid when playing with boys, which might inhibit their athletic skills. They might feel more supported by an all-girls team than a coed one.
Coaches can face challenges when leading a coed sports team. Although every player might respond to different motivations, coaches can find general ways to motivate teams of boys or teams of girls. Motivating a team of boys and girls, who inherently might have different reasons for playing or factors that motivate them, can be particularly challenging. Finding a gender-neutral way to coach and motivate a team is a disadvantage of coed sports.
Logistically, coed sports teams present a few challenges. While coaches can overcome these logistical challenges, the effort might not be worth it when all of the disadvantages of coed teams are considered. Boys and girls often wear different styles and cuts of uniforms, doubling the effort that teams have to make when selecting uniforms. When teams retreat to the locker room at halftime, boys and girls will go to separate rooms, making it difficult for a halftime speech from the coach to prepare athletes for the rest of the game.

Nosebleeds After Exercising

When exercising, your heart pumps blood throughout your body at a greater rate as your muscles demand extra oxygen. Some of that blood flows through the little capillaries inside the nose itself. It doesn’t take much to damage these capillaries. If you’re generally sensitive to nosebleeds, you can find that you experience many more nosebleeds after exercising than normal.
A nosebleed takes place when the tiny blood vessels in the soft internal lining of your nose rupture. This rupture can cause a slight trickle of blood or a fairly strong gush until the wound closes. Most nosebleeds stop in about 10 minutes. When your body is warm, blood tends to flow near the skin surface via capillaries. The heat generated while exercising, particularly on a hot day, is enough to increase your chances of a nosebleed.
Running in dry conditions or breathing heavily through your nose can take some of the moisture from your nasal cavity. Nosebleeds are more likely to occur when it’s dry inside the nose. Therefore, rubbing your nose or sneezing after exercise, when the capillaries are dry and sensitive, may be enough to trigger a nosebleed. Keeping well hydrated during exercise can help keep your throat and nasal cavity moist. The Washington University Sinus Institute notes high altitudes can also play a role in nosebleeds. If convenient, opt to exercise in a low-altitude area. For example, if you live in a mountainous area, take jogs in the valley rather than partially up the mountain.
High blood pressure, or hypertension, can trigger nosebleeds in some situations. Hypertension increases the pressure inside your blood vessels. Combined with exercise, this can put a big strain on your arteries, veins and capillaries. The strain can be great enough to cause vessels to burst in your nose and cause a nosebleed. Another possible trigger is the use of blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin. This can increase the chance of nosebleeds in general and after exercise in particular.
Although nosebleeds rarely require a visit to the doctor, in certain situations, medical attention is necessary. If your nosebleed after exercise is the result of a blow to the head, such as after a charge in football or fall during basketball, then you should see a doctor immediately, according to the American Institute for Preventive Medicine. Similarly, if the nosebleed is at the back of your nose and running into your throat, visit a doctor as soon as you can.

The Differences Between Cheerleading & Gymnastics

While cheerleading and gymnastics have tumbling in common, the way they use cartwheels and more complicated moves is vastly different. Both are highly athletic activities that require a great deal of physical fitness and expertise. Cheerleading and gymnastics also combine execution of powerful, awe-inspiring moves with grace and finesse. While these two sports could be considered close relatives, the differences make it clear that they stand alone as their own entities.
Gymnasts compete on four different apparatus. They must learn to do tumbling, jumping and dance moves on the floor and the balance beam. The vault requires gymnasts to do explosive skills off of a spring board and over the vault. The uneven parallel bars require swinging, flipping, and release moves. While a gymnast may excel in one of these areas, they must learn to compete on all four apparatus in order to be successful.
Cheerleaders do not complete on different apparatus. They do all of their skills on the flat surface of a competition mat, athletic court or the track in front of a field, such as a football field. Cheerleaders do incorporate tumbling and jumps that are very similar to those used in gymnastics; however, that is where the similarities end. Cheerleaders use their voices along with choreographed motions in an attempt to get the crowd to cheer along with a game. Cheerleading also involves stunting, where either one cheerleader or a group of cheerleaders lifts or tosses another cheerleader into the air.
Cheerleaders and gymnasts hold different roles in their respective sports. Gymnasts play a primary role, with the attention solely on their performance, during competitions. Cheerleaders sometimes play a primary role, such as when they are competing, and sometimes play a secondary role, when they are supporting another sports team by cheering them on to victory. When cheering for a sports team, cheerleaders need to consider timing for cheers and stunts so as to not distract from the game. Gymnasts do not need to do this because their performance is the main event.
While both cheerleaders and gymnasts benefit from the support of a tightly knit team, gymnastics is more of an individual sport. When performing, one gymnast takes her turn alone. While cheerleading does sometimes have some solo events in competitions, it is more of a team sport. A cheerleading squad performs together as a unit at games and competitions. Therefore in cheerleading, synchronization and uniformity are much more important than in gymnastics.

The Best Way to Give a B12 Shot

Vitamin B12, referred to as cobalamin, is an essential water-soluble vitamin crucial for cell reproduction, maintaining healthy nerve and red blood cells, and making DNA. Your physician may prescribe vitamin B12 shots if you are a strict vegetarian or have certain medical conditions including pernicious anemia. According to the National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 injections are typically administered intramuscularly. You can self-inject vitamin B12 at home. Proper procedure and sterilization techniques are required to ensure adequate administration and reduce the risk of injury or infection.
Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water counting to 15 seconds. Completely dry hands on a clean towel.
Check to see if you received the accurate medication and dosage. Ensure that the medication did not expire. Clean the top of the bottle with alcohol and dry thoroughly.
Remove sterile coverings to the syringe and pull the cap straight off. If you receive a separate syringe and needle, attach the needle to the syringe. Do not touch the needle.
Fill the syringe with air by pulling back on the plunger until you reach the prescribed amount of medication. Ensure no air bubbles are present.
Remove any cap from the B12. Inject the needle of air into the center space on top of the rubber stopper of the bottle, making it easier to fill the syringe.
Turn the bottle over with the syringe inside. Carefully pull the plunger down below the line of the desired amount of medication watching for air bubbles. If air bubbles are present, gently tap the syringe with your finger and push to slowly release any air. Pull the plunger back to obtain the exact dose. If no air bubbles are present, move the plunger up to the exact line of your prescribed dosage. The top of the rubber plunger will line up with the amount of medication. Remove and cap the syringe.
Identify the large muscle of the thigh, the vastus lateralis, which is the midpoint between your hip and knee. This muscle runs along the front and slightly to the side of your thigh. Locate the injection site by placing your thumb in the center of the front of your thigh with your fingers along the side.
Clean the injection site with alcohol in a circular motion allowing it to dry before beginning the procedure.
Grasp the muscle between your thumb and fingers allowing for the medication to be delivered into the deepest portion of the muscle. Position the needle as you would a pencil. Just as you would throw a dart, insert the needle in a 90-degree angle completely into the skin. Use one fast motion to minimize pain.
Pull the plunger back to check for the presence of blood. If blood is present, remove the needle from the muscle and begin again with sterile supplies and a new dose of vitamin B12.
Push the medication into the muscle slowly until the complete dose is injected. Apply gentle pressure with a sterile cloth.
Discard used needle and syringe into a plastic container with a screw top lid, a metal coffee can, or a puncture proof sharps container. Follow proper garbage procedure for discarding the container or bring it to your pharmacist for disposal.

Scoring System of Basketball

A basket scored can count as one, two or three points, depending on your shooting location. A free throw remains the only way to score outside of game play, as it occurs after a whistle. Basketball rules determine when you will have an uncontested free throw worth one point. The dimensions of the basketball court determine where a shot must originate for it to count as three points.
To score a basket in basketball, the ball must pass through the hoop from above. The shot must originate from somewhere on the playing area. If the ball does not pass completely through the basket, no points are counted.
Each free throw made counts as one point. The free-throw line is located 15 feet from the backboard in the center of the floor. For you to receive a free throw, the opposing team will have to commit a foul on you as you shoot or commit more than five personal fouls over the course of one quarter. If you are fouled as you sink a basket during game play, you will receive one bonus free throw. If you miss the shot, you will receive two or three free throws, depending on the location where the shot originated.
Any basket from a shot taken from inside the three-point line during game play counts for two points. The three-point line is located 23 feet 9 inches from the center of the backboard. If a player steps on the three-point line before releasing the ball, the shot will count for only two points.
Any basket from a shot taken from outside the three-point line counts for three points. The shooting player can step on or cross the three-point line after releasing the ball; the shot will still count for three points. The shooter must have at least one foot on the floor outside of the line before taking the shot.
A National Basketball Association game can take a variety of different forms. The highest-scoring game on record was a 186-to-184 victory for Detroit over Denver in 1983; the lowest-scoring game was a 62-to-57 victory for Boston over Milwaukee in 1955. Wilt Chamberlain holds the record for most points scored in a season, 4,029, and in a game, 100. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar holds the career points record with 38,387.

History of Softball and Baseball

The summertime craving for extra innings and the satisfying crack of ball connecting with bat got its start back in the day when a ball and stick were all you had to play with. Baseball’s greatest influence was the 19th century British game called rounders. Softball’s invention is more concrete, as the first game can be traced to Chicago’s Farragut Boat Club in 1887.
Back before there were international and national federations determining the rules for baseball; every town, in every city, played by their own rules. But by the mid-1840s, two distinct versions of baseball had emerged, Knickerbocker Rules, which closely resembles baseball as it is known today, and Town Ball, or The Massachusetts Game, which maintains closer ties to the game of rounder.
Alexander Cartwright is credited with establishing Knickerbocker Rules on Sept. 23, 1845. The term Knickerbocker was used as that was the name of Cartwright’s baseball team. The original Knickerbocker Rules were a list of 20 items, some of which are still being used. The first-known baseball game to be played using Knickerbocker Rules occurred in 1846, as the New York Baseball Club defeated the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club of New York City.
While baseball played under Knickerbocker Rules was gaining popularity in New York, Town Ball was still being played elsewhere. In 1858, The Massachusetts Association of Base Ball Players formalized a set of rules for Town Ball, which became known as the Massachusetts Game, or Massachusetts Rules. Even though Knickerbocker Rules had been established earlier, not everybody was eager to give up their version of baseball. The first college baseball game was played between Williams College and Amherst College in 1859 using Massachusetts Rules.
The first organized baseball league was the National Association of Base Ball Players, which was established in 1858. Although the league was intended to be for amateurs, some players were quietly paid under the table or were hired by the team’s sponsors. In 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings became the first known professional team and complied a 65-0 record.
The game of softball was born almost by accident, as it occurred after the traditional Harvard vs. Yale football game on Thanksgiving Day 1887 at Chicago’s Farragut Boat Club, where fans of both teams had gathered to hear the score. A Yale supporter tossed a boxing glove at a Harvard fan in good fun, and the Harvard fan hit the glove away with a broom handle and an idea was born. A man named George Hancock witnessed the incident and tied a boxing glove to be used as the ball and the first game took place that day.
The game of softball enjoyed instant popularity in Chicago, as it could be played indoors or outdoors, and the sport gradually expanded to other regions. The game gained acceptance in Minneapolis when fireman Lewis Rober used the game at his station and the sport was adopted by the Minneapolis Park Board in 1913. The Amateur Softball Association was created in 1933 and helped create a standard of rules to be used for the game.

Benefits of Teamwork in Sports

Teams that often end up on the winning end of the score in team sports are those that work well together. Learning to cooperate with others towards a common goal in sports is what builds character, friendship and important life skills for players and coaches. The friendships built within a team can last a lifetime for some players, and the journey of a team throughout a season is often memorable.
Entering into a new season in sports, you might only know a few of the players on your team. Some of the players may actually be people you are not that fond of off the playing field. But when your team decides at the beginning of the year that it wants to be the team in the winner’s circle holding the league championship trophy at the end of the season, personal differences are often set aside for the common good of the team. Many coaches like to say that the name on the front of the jersey is more important than the name on the back. This is saying that no one player is greater than the team. Sports such as football and ice hockey are physical sports and often require heavy commitment and dedication to be successful. By the end of the season, players who have been battered and bruised by the grind of the regular season and the playoffs may feel a strong connection, much like brothers, to their teammates.
In the case of many of today’s youth, team sports offer a way for kids and young adults to avoid many temptations, including drugs and criminal activity. It also allows for kids and adults alike a chance to get out and socialize with friends and avoid spending too much time at home watching television and playing video games. The team work involved in these sports allows for people to become part of something of value and teaches people how to help someone on their team when they are struggling and offer them words of encouragement when they are performing either poorly or admirably. Team work can also give players a greater respect for one another and can build friendships that last a lifetime.
Team work in sports offer a way for people to compete for something together. In ice hockey, for example, the captain of the team can make it his goal to motivate every member of his team to give everything they have during the season in order to win the league championship. Although it is important to know that winning is not everything in sports, healthy competition can be good for people. People can translate the hard work they’ve put into their sport by working harder to be a better student or employee and a better person overall. Working towards a goal can teach people the value of hard work, commitment and dedication and team sports are a great way to learn these values.
Team work in sports can help give participants stronger communication skills and teach them to work better with others. Many projects at work and at school often require a group to work together to put together a strong presentation to be looked at by the employer or teacher. Every member of that team must be pulling in the same direction to complete the project successfully. Additional advantages to team work in sports include learning to deal with conflict and exposure to a variety of ideas within the team.

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