In 1891, soccer referees moved from the touchlines onto the field of play. This brought about a new development: the introduction of a linesman, or assistant referee, on each touchline. The linesman¡¯s role has remained fundamentally the same since that time. It is his duty to assist and advise the referee from the touchline, with a particular focus on specific aspects of the game.
The linesman decides when the ball has gone out of play. She is able to look directly along both the touchline and goal line, something that the referee is normally unable to do. When the whole of the ball has left the field, the linesman raises her flag to signal the need for a throw-in, goal kick or corner kick.
When the ball leaves the field of play, the linesman decides which team is entitled to the ensuing throw-in, goal kick or corner kick. As with all other refereeing decisions, the referee himself has the final word and can overturn the linesman¡¯s decision if deemed necessary.
The linesman raises his flag when he spots a player in an offside position. This is one of his most difficult tasks. It often involves a split-second decision in a potentially match-winning situation.
When a manager or coach wants to make a substitution, she will inform the linesman in charge of the touchline closest to the team dugout or technical area. It is then the linesman¡¯s duty to inform the referee of the requested change.
Keeping one eye on 22 players is an impossible task for the referee. The linesman, therefore, acts as a second pair of eyes. It is his duty to indicate when an incident occurs out of the referee¡¯s view. According to the Football Referee website, the referee is expected to act on the linesman¡¯s advice regarding incidents that he did not witness himself.
If the referee believes the linesman had a better view of an incident, she will consult with the linesman to determine the correct course of action.
The linesman has two key duties during penalty kicks, both of which involve looking along the goal line. He must first decide whether the goalkeeper moved off the goal line before the penalty-taker kicked the ball. He must then decide whether the whole ball crossed the goal line.
Linesmen rarely enter the field of play, remaining on the touchline for most of the game. If needed, a linesman can enter the field of play to assist the referee during free kick procedures, specifically to help enforce the 10 yards law. Linesmen also help the referee when scuffles or fights occur. According to the FIFA Laws of the Game, the nearest assistant referee may enter the field of play to assist the referee in situations of mass confrontation.
Hyperextension of your toe can result in a sprain, causing pain and a limp with walking and running. You might also experience swelling, decreased range of motion and bruising. Initial treatment consists of rest, ice, compression and elevation; but once pain and swelling subside, you can do range-of-motion and strength and stability exercises. Consult your athletic trainer, medical provider or physical therapist before doing exercises with a hyperextended toe.
Hyperextension happens when your toe is extended or pulled back too far. Landing with your weight too far forward on your toes during running or jumping or a direct hit to your toes can lead to hyperextension. Hyperextension usually results in a sprain or tear of the ligaments that stabilize the joints in your toes. In severe cases, you may sustain a dislocation or fracture. Hyperextension of the big toe and a sprain to the metatarsophalangeal joint is common among football and soccer players who play on artificial turf. That’s why this injury is often referred to as ¡°turf toe.¡±
Due to the swelling and immobilization of your toe, you may experience joint stiffness and loss of range of motion. In a seated position, you or your physical therapist can hold your toe and gently flex and extend it in the pain-free range — called passive range of motion. As the pain subsides, you may move your toe without assistance by slowly flexing or curling your toes and then extending your toes. Increase your movements until you regain normal range of motion.
In a seated position, slowly pick up marbles from the floor with your toes and place them in a bowl or cup. For further toe strengthening, put a towel under your foot. Curl your toes to pick up the towel. Release the towel and repeat the exercise. Regain stability with single-leg balance exercises for 30- to 60-second intervals. For further progress, stand on one leg on a wobble board or uneven surface with your eyes closed. Do hip extensions on your non-weight-bearing leg by standing up straight and stretching your leg behind you. Stretch your arms forward for balance.
Before you return to normal activities or your sport, perform functional exercises such as squatting, running, jumping and kicking. If these activities do not cause pain or additional symptoms, your physical therapist may discharge you from physical therapy. Taping your toe or putting stiff orthotics into your shoes may also be necessary to avoid further injury and pain when performing exercises or before participating in sports.
Swimming can help soccer players stay fit in the off-season and serve as a form of cross-training to reduce the risk of overuse injuries. Swim workouts also help to build a soccer player¡¯s cardiovascular endurance. However, the mechanics of a flutter kick for can be a challenge for soccer players.
Soccer players need to develop aerobic endurance to ward off fatigue. Soccer players can improve endurance by combining cardio sessions with strengthening workouts — and swimming provides a sound option for cross-training purposes. Overuse and strain of lower-body muscles — adductor muscles, quads, hamstrings, calves and feet ¨C are the most common injuries in soccer players, according to ¡°Women in Sport¡± by Barbara L. Drinkwater. A swimming workout can alleviate the stress on your lower-body muscles and joints and help to build your upper-body musculature.
During the off-season you can incorporate swimming workouts in your training schedule to maintain cardiovascular fitness. Aim for two to three sessions of 20 to 40 minutes per week of swimming laps, according to Sports Fitness Advisor. For example, on Monday and Friday, combine a 20-minute swimming workout with exercises for your core strength, stability and functional strength. On Wednesday, you can play tennis or badminton for an hour while taking a rest on Tuesday and Thursday. When swimming, monitor your heart rate with the goal of exercising at 60 to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate.
When it comes to swimming, the primary challenge for soccer players — or any running athlete — is the kick. An efficient flutter kick for the freestyle or back stroke requires flexible ankles and the ability to point your feet in the water — something that running athletes struggle with. In addition, the kick originates from the rotation in your hips and not the bend of your knees. An incorrect kick resembles the pedaling of a bicycle underwater. By using fins with short blades, the added load or water resistance will help to stretch your ankles and achieve a better kick, according to Breaking Muscle. Begin an effective stretch for your ankles by sitting on the floor and crossing your right leg over your left. With your left hand, grasp the sole of your right foot and slowly rotate your foot. Then pull the right toes down, working the extension of your ankle. Repeat the stretch for your left ankle.
Aquatic running is another water-based option for soccer players. Performed in either a pool¡¯s deep end or a hydrotherapy pool, deep water running involves wearing a buoyancy vest and running in water. You have to push your hips forward against the water¡¯s resistance to maintain proper form. Because your feet never touch the pool¡¯s floor, you can lower the stress on your lower-body joints as well as the compressive forces on your spine, according to ¡°The Science of Training ¨C Soccer: A Scientific Approach to Developing Strength, Speed and Endurance¡± by Thomas Reilly. This aquatic exercise builds aerobic endurance and can speed up the recovery of your muscles and alleviate soreness after competition or rigorous dry-land workouts.
The fungal infection on your heels is likely a form of athlete’s foot, a relatively common and very treatable condition, and your doctor will probably prescribe a topical antifungal medication for you to apply directly to the affected skin. Clotrimazole, miconazole nitrate, terbinafine hydrochloride, ciclopirox, econazole, ketoconazole and oxiconazole are among the common prescription antifungal medicines used to cure athlete’s foot. The specific product your doctor prescribes will depend on the exact location and extent of your infection. In serious cases, you may need more powerful antifungal medicines that are ingested orally. These medications may have significant side effects. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of all available prescription medicines with your doctor prior to commencing use.
The first Ironman triathlon was held in Hawaii in 1978, and only 15 athletes started the ultimate test of human endurance. Today, there are hundreds of thousands of triathletes competing in Ironman triathlons all around the world. There is such a variety of competitors that the time it takes to finish an Ironman can vary greatly.
The first thing to note is that each of the Ironman events has a cutoff time in place. There is an overall cutoff time as well as a cutoff time for each stage. If you do not complete the stage or the triathlon in the time allowed, you will be considered a Did Not Finish. Cutoff times vary based on the specific event, but the cutoff times for the Ford Ironman Championship in Kona, Hawaii are: The 2.2-mile swim must be finished within 2 hours and 20 minutes from the start; the 112-mile bike must be finished within 10 hours and 30 minutes from the start; and the 26.2 mile run, the same distance as a marathon, must be finished within 17 hours from the start.
Professional athletes dedicate their lives and train extensively to compete in triathlons. They can train for hours per day, every day of the week, and everything they do revolves around competition. Therefore, their finishing times are the best at the events. For example, the top male finisher at the 2010 Ford Ironman Championship in Hawaii finished the race in 8 hours 10 minutes 37 seconds, while the top female finisher completed the race in 8:58:36.
There is also recognition for finishing the Ironman at the top of your age group. Many of the competitors who aim to finish at the top of their age group are professional or semiprofessional athletes. Age groups are broken into five-year increments. Professional male athletes in age groups up to 55 to 59 can finish the event in less than 10 hours.
Not everyone competing in an Ironman triathlon is able to commit all day, every day to competition. There are many athletes who work full-time jobs and have family commitments. A well-conditioned person still can finish an Ironman triathlon with time to spare. In 2010, the Ford Ironman Championship had a total of 1,771 finishers. The last-place finisher completed the course in 16:59:13. The actual time it takes to finish the event will depend on conditioning, training and experience.
Walking, running and playing on the playground are efficient ways to get kids moving — and it helps them meet their daily physical activity goal. The number of children that actually meet this goal are very few. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, roughly 12.5 million children who are between the ages of two and 19 are obese.
Childhood obesity has become a major concern in the United States. The American Heart Association states that for 2012, one out of every three youth ages two to 19 years of age were overweight and obese, while one out every six were considered obese. The current classification for an individual to be overweight is having a Body Mass Index at or above the 85th percentile, while obesity requires an individual to be at or above the 95th percentile.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend children and youth should practice at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity. The CDC also recommends children engage in muscle- and bone-strengthening exercises at least three times a week during their 60 minutes. Benefits of adding strengthening exercises include an increase in muscle strength and power, improvements in blood lipid profile and improvement in body composition. Examples of muscle and bone strengthening exercises include pushups, crunches, squats and calf raises.
According to a 2009 study by Schulz, Anner, and Hills, only 42 percent of children six to 11 years of age met the daily recommendation for 60 minutes a day of physical activity. That number drops drastically to only 8 percent of youth ages 12 to 19. The authors of the study hypothesize the reason for the sharp decline may be due to the lack of physical education in school for children in this age group. Many children between the ages of 12 to 19 are in middle school and high school.
There are many ways for children to reach 60 minutes or more of daily physical activity. If you’re looking for something to do inside, there are a variety of workout videos specifically tailored for children, including videos that incorporate dancing or martial arts. Workout video games that require the players to jump, run in place or dance in order to play the game are also available.
Next time you’re planning to cook a potato dish, swap out the regular potatoes for sweet potatoes. The type of sweet potato you choose and how you prepare it affect how nutritious it is, but regardless of the type you prefer, these vegetables can be a part of a healthy diet.
Sweet potatoes come in a variety of colors, including those with white, yellow, orange or purple flesh. The purple varieties contain the most antioxidants, and the white-fleshed varieties contain the least of these beneficial nutrients, according to a study published in “Food Chemistry” in 2007. The purple sweet potatoes aren’t widely available in the United States, but if you’re debating about a white sweet potato versus an orange one, go with the orange. Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes contain more beta-carotene, which your body can turn into vitamin A.
Baked sweet potato with the skin on is healthier than boiled sweet potato without the skin. The skin contains beneficial fiber, and boiling the potato causes some of the vitamin C and certain B vitamins to leach out into the cooking water. Both types of sweet potato, however, are more nutritious than a regular potato, providing more fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C and manganese.
According to a 2003 article in the ¡°British Journal of Sports Medicine,¡± a flat or high arch is one of many risk factors for lower extremity injuries including foot injuries. Common injuries that cause foot pain are plantar fasciitis, stress fractures and muscle strains. Treatment varies depending on the injury or cause, but rest and ice may help alleviate foot pain. Consult your physician if your pain persists or worsens.
Using heavy resistance with weight-bearing exercises such as squats, deadlifts and lunges places a significant amount of stress and pressure on your feet. If you overtrain or have inadequate recovery time between weightlifting sessions, your body and feet may not heal between sessions, causing inflammation and foot pain. Shoes that do no provide enough support and cushion or are too tight may lead to foot pain as well. Your fitness level, weightlifting technique, flexibility and previous foot or ankle injuries also impact your foot health.
Injuries that cause foot pain among other symptoms include plantar fasciitis, muscle strains, stress fractures, tendinitis and arthritis. Damage or impingement to your nerves in your foot can also lead to foot pain and include Morton¡¯s neuroma, tarsal tunnel syndrome and neuropathy.
Stop all painful activities and ice your foot to reduce inflammation and pain. Take over-the-counter pain medications such as acetaminophen, if your pain is not alleviated with rest and ice. Apply heat 48 to 72 hours following the onset of your foot pain. Apply heat prior to activities and ice following activities in 20-minute increments. Lightly stretch your foot, ankle and calf to improve flexibility and reduce pain. Stretches include the standing calf stretch, ankle circles and seated plantar fascia stretch. For the plantar fascia stretch, gently pull back on your toes until you feel a stretch on the bottom of your foot. Massaging the bottom of your foot with a tennis ball can also help alleviate discomfort associated with plantar fasciitis. Stress fractures and chronic tendinitis may require immobilization with a cast or walking boot. With severe foot injuries, surgery may be necessary when conservative treatment is unsuccessful.
You may continue weightlifting when suffering from foot pain, as long as you are free of pain and in a non-weight bearing position. For example, you may replace squats and lunges with seated leg extension, knee flexion, hip abduction and adduction with resistance machines. Once pain subsides, you may return to weight-bearing resistance exercises. Start with lighter weight and progress slowly, increasing your weight a few pounds each week.
Perform strength exercises like calf raises and ankle flexion and extension with a resistance band to prevent future injuries and foot pain. Warmup and stretch muscles before weightlifting to maintain muscle flexibility, and wear shoes and orthotics that provide adequate arch support and fit comfortably. Weightlift two to three times a week but not on consecutive days to prevent overtraining and injury.
Sports performance often has to do as much with how a person handles pressure in demanding situations as with the physical abilities displayed by the competitors. For many athletes, from young people to seasoned professionals, nerves can wreak havoc on an athlete¡¯s ability to perform at his best. But the best performers have figured out how to calm their nerves just enough so that they do not affect their physical performance, which allows them to perform at their peak. Much of this training comes in preparation for the game or match where the nervousness likely will come. By preparing your mind for what to expect before the game, you can ease your nervousness and perform at your best when the time comes.
Train your mind to handle difficult situations while you practice. This can be accomplished by introducing competition into your practice routines in which the winners and losers have real motivation for winning and consequences for losing. For team sports, having players scrimmage at the end of practice with the losers having to run extra sprints can help breed competition and provide practice for performing under pressure.
Spend time each night envisioning the best possible outcome of the upcoming event. Imagine your thoughts and feelings during the big moments and envision yourself performing well under stress.
Develop a routine before your competition that becomes familiar. Sticking to something that is familiar can help you calm your nerves and help you get into the right mind-set before competition. Most athletes believe that a bit of nervousness is needed to provide the adrenaline to perform at your best and a routine will help you harness that energy. PGA Tour players are an excellent example. They all have a consistent routine as they prepare for a tournament and a pre-shot routine for every shot, from their drives to putts.
Breathe deeply during your pregame routine. Remembering simple physiological cues can help lower your heart rate and help you calm down.
Focus on the now instead of the past or future. A major part of reducing your stress level in sports is to focus on what you can control instead of dwelling on the past or thinking about the future. This will help you get comfortable by allowing your mind to let go of your worries and focus just on your physical abilities, which have been worked on in practice.
Like any sport that evolved from another activity, the rules of Frisbee football are somewhat fluid. Further enhancements to the basics of Frisbee football have developed into an internationally recognized sport called Ultimate Frisbee. You can enjoy the basic fun of team sports with a flying disk while modifying the rules to fit your circumstances. Once you have the basics in place, you can add new rules or tailor your game to fit the playing area or number of players.
Assign an equal number of players to each team. A standard number is seven players to a side, but you can expand the teams to accommodate everyone who wants to play, as long as the field is large enough.
Define the boundaries of the field and the location of the end zones before beginning. The game plays out much like regular football, so if a youth league football field already is marked off at a local park, use that. Otherwise, use natural boundaries in an open field like walkways or tree lines to indicate out-of-bounds areas, and set out four cones or markers to denote the end zones.
¡°Kick off¡± by throwing the Frisbee down the field to the receiving team. Each team should line up at a specified point, either at the goal lines if you are on a small field or at the 20-yard line if you are on a marked football field. No player may cross that line until the Frisbee is in flight.
Mark the line of scrimmage at which the receiving team catches the Frisbee. If the ¡°kick off¡± travels out-of-bounds, the ¡°kicking¡± team must try again after marking off a five-step or five-yard penalty.
Advance the Frisbee by throwing a pass to a teammate just as you would in football. The quarterback is permitted to move around behind the line of scrimmage while looking for an open receiver.
Mark the spot of the Frisbee at the point of the catch if the offensive team makes a completion. The offensive and defensive teams line up again at the new line of scrimmage, and run the next play. Teams have four downs in which to score a touchdown, though variations to this rule exist. You may grant the offense a new set of downs following four completions, even if that team doesn’t score.
Score a single point for touchdowns for simplified play, or score the game like regular football, or six points for a touchdown, if you happen to have goalposts available for an extra point attempt. The point after should be challenging enough so that it is not automatic, so set the line of scrimmage for the try at midfield. You may also incorporate field goals for three points if you have the goalposts available.
Set time limits for each quarter, and designate a time keeper. Regulation football times of 15 minutes per quarter with a short half-time break work well.