The History of Baseball During the 1930s to the 1950s

Baseball was fully ingrained in the American cultural experience by the start of the 1930s. Much of this was due to the home run slugging of Babe Ruth, who drew fans to the game because of his ability to hit the long ball and because of his outsized personality. Baseball’s grip on the American public would grow dramatically during the next 20 years.
For the first half of the 20th century, major league baseball had been a sport for white players only. African-Americans played baseball in the Negro Leagues, and many were brilliant athletes. But baseball history changed when the Brooklyn Dodgers signed Jackie Robinson. In 1947, Robinson integrated major league baseball. He endured racist behavior and attitudes from fans, opponents and teammates. Nevertheless, Robinson endured and thrived. He hit .297 and won the Rookie of the Year Award in 1947. His 10-year career earned him a spot in baseball’s Hall of Fame. More importantly, Robinson paved the way for African-Americans and other minorities to enter the major league. He also played a key role in the civil rights movement, serving as a role model for anyone who wanted to break down social barriers.
The Yankees had established themselves as one of baseball’s better teams in the 1920s when they won three World Series championships. However, they became baseball’s best overall team in the 1930s and 1940s. They won the 1932 World Series by sweeping the Chicago Cubs in four straight games. That victory featured Babe Ruth famously calling his shot when he pointed to the center field bleachers at Wrigley Field before bashing a long home run and then laughing at the beleaguered Cubs as he circled the bases. The Yankees won four straight World Series titles between 1936 and 1939 and added four more World Series titles in the 1940s.
The All-Star game was first played in 1933 and was so successful that the annual game between the best players in the American and National Leagues has become known as the “Midsummer Classic.” The first All-Star game was played in Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The American League won 4-2 in a game that featured a Babe Ruth home run. The All-Star game would serve as the only meeting between players in both leagues besides the World Series until baseball began interleague play in 1997.
Baseball saw a generation of stars play in the 1930s and 1940s. Perhaps the two best of the era were Joe DiMaggio of the New York Yankees and Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox. DiMaggio was a brilliant center fielder who was the game’s best all-around player until Willie Mays started playing in the 1950s. Many historians regard Williams as the best hitter in baseball history. The National League featured stars such as Stan Musial of the St. Louis Cardinals, Mel Ott of the New York Giants and Gabby Hartnett of the Chicago Cubs.

What Is the Length of a Football Field From the Goal Post?

The goal post on a football field is located at or near the end line of the end zone. In the NFL, the base of the goal post is located two yards behind the end line and the neck of the goal post curves so that the target area is directly above the end line. This is called a “slingshot” goal post. In college and high school football, the goal post may be located directly on the goal line.
A football field in the United States measures 100 yards from goal line to goal line. There are 10-yard end zones behind both goal lines. Since the target area of the goal post is directly above the end line, the two goal posts measure 120 yards apart. However, since the base of the goal post is set back two yards from the end line, the length between the bases of the two goal posts measures 124 yards.
The target area of college goal posts are situated on the end line as well. In many cases, the goal posts are set back similar to professional goal posts and measure 124 yards apart, but in other cases, the goal posts are situated directly on the goal line. When they are on the goal line, they are 120 yards apart. Additionally, the goal post may have a supporting base or may resemble the letter “H,” with two supporting legs in the ground. This is less common as of 2011, but Division II and Division III schools may use these type of goal posts.
High school goal posts are situated similarly to college goal posts. They may be set back from the goal line or directly on the goal line. There are many high school fields in rural areas that use the H-style goalposts directly on the goal line. Additionally, some high schools in less-populated areas primarily in North Dakota, South Dakota and rural areas of Minnesota play a version of the game called eight-man football. This game is played on an 80-yard field. This type of field has 10-yard end zones, which means that the goal posts sit 100 yards from each other.
The NFL placed its goal posts directly on the goal line through the 1973 season. However, in an attempt to encourage touchdowns over field goals and to prevent player collisions with the goal posts, they were moved to the end line. When the goalposts were located on the goal line, they sat 100 yards apart.

Dan and Scott’s Chipotle Pork Loin

Dan and Scott¡¯s Chipotle Pork Loin With Blue Potato Salad
See more recipes from TLC’s KICK OFF COOK OFF, a new cooking competition that slams together America’s two favorite pastimes: football and cooking!
Prep Time 30 minutes
Cook Time 1 1/2 hours
6 servings
Check out more recipes for Pork

How Do I Treat a Canker Sore With Salt?

According to Medline Plus, women develop canker sores more often than men, and they typically strike first when the sufferer is between 10 and 40 years of age. Benign canker sores are different than fever blisters, which are contagious blisters, and cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1.
Canker sores — also called mouth ulcers, aphthous stomatitis, aphthae or ulcerative stomatitis — affect the gumline, soft palate, tongue, soft palate, and inner lips and cheeks. Medline Plus describes the sores as white or yellow surrounded by a red area and says that they can be quite painful. Canker sores are usually under 1cm in diameter but can sometimes be larger. They appear as a single sore or in a group of sores called a crop. The sores often recur, but not usually in the same location, which is the case with fever blisters.
Canker sores appear for many reasons, but sometimes they have no apparent or detectable cause, says Medline Plus. Health 911 lists some of the causes for canker sores as stress, some foods — especially citrus juice and fruit — allergies, injury from brushing too hard or biting down on a sharp piece of food, dental work, acidity in the stomach, celiac disease and deficiencies of nutrients such as B12, folic acid, iron and zinc. Medline Plus describes additional causes as a family history of canker sores, problems with the immune system, hormonal changes and menstrual periods.
When canker sores are just beginning, the sufferer usually feels a burning, tingling sensation in the area where the sore will appear, says Medline Plus. Soon, the tingling area swells into a red bump, which develops into the open ulcer characteristic of the canker sore. Along with the canker sores, some people may experience swollen lymph nodes, fever and even a general feeling of uneasiness. The healing time is typically one to three weeks, but larger sores may take up to four weeks to completely heal.
Some remedies using salt have been suggested as helping reduce the severity and pain and speeding healing of canker sores. Health 911 suggests gargling with 1 tsp. soda and a pinch of salt dissolved in 1 cup of warm water. Gargle with this solution at the first sign of the canker sore. Another treatment using salt requires 2 tbsp. of salt dissolved in 6 oz. of warm water. Rinse the mouth with this solution three to four times a day to draw fluid out of the sore, helping it heal. A third suggestion from Health 911 requires 1/4 tsp. salt, 1/2 tsp. goldenseal powder and 1 cup warm water. Rinse the mouth several times a day. A pinch of powdered goldenseal applied to the sore may help as well. A British study, according to SaveYourSmile, found that people suffering from canker sores often said that salt-water rinses, among several treatment options, were the least effective. However, because some people experience a benefit from the salt-water rinse — and the treatment is inexpensive — it is worth a try. SaveYourSmile recommends mixing 1 tsp. salt with a cup of warm water, swishing it around the mouth for a minute and then spitting it out. Medline Plus recommends rinsing the mouth with salt water or a mild mouthwash.
USA Today’s Health Encyclopedia — Diseases and Conditions reiterates the benefit some receive from salt-water rinses but also describes several other treatments. Xylocaine applied to the sore can numb the pain of a single sore, and anti-inflammatory steroid mouthwash or gel is more effective for those with several sores. While cimetidine, also known as the heartburn medication Tagamet, is not approved specifically for canker sores, some patients have found that it helps treat their canker sores. A few other treatments reported by Health Encyclopedia are avoiding irritating food, putting ice on the canker sore and rinsing the mouth with elixir of Benadryl or diluted hydrogen peroxide, both of which are available over the counter.

George Halas

Today the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio, sits on George Halas Drive. No address could be more appropriate. Halas is arguably the most important figure in the history of pro football.
At the University of Illinois, Halas (1895-1983) was a good, though not great, two-way end. In 1919, he played pro football in Chicago and, briefly, major-league baseball with the New York Yankees.
A hip injury ended his baseball career. A. E. Staley, owner of a Decatur, Illinois, starch company, hired Halas as coach of the company’s baseball and football teams.
By offering players positions with the company plus paid practice time, Halas was able to build a strong football team. When he learned a league was to be formed in Canton in 1920, he made the Staleys charter members. In the early years of the NFL, Halas was one of the most steadfast and influential leaders at league meetings.
In 1921, Halas moved the Staleys to Chicago and won his first league championship. The next year, he and partner Dutch Sternaman secured their own franchise and renamed the team the Chicago Bears. Halas raised pro football enormously in the public¡¯s estimation in 1925 by signing All-American Red Grange and launching a coast-to-coast barnstorming tour that played to huge crowds.
After a hiatus, Halas returned to coach the Bears in 1933 and won his second NFL title. His greatest period as a coach was the 1940s, when his Bears won four league crowns. Much of that success was due to the development of the modern T-formation pioneered in part by Halas and his assistants. The Bears’ dominance led to the “T” becoming the standard football offense.
Halas won his final NFL championship in 1963 with a team keyed by a magnificent defense. In 40 years of coaching, Halas compiled a 324-151-31 mark. Only Don Shula, in an age of longer seasons, has won more pro games. Until his death in 1983, Halas continued to be a leader among NFL owners.

Good Vibrations: Getting Buff without Weights

July 20, 2006 | Post Archive
Technology is the answer to all of our problems, right? It’s supposed to take the work out of work. Soon we’ll all be leading the life of George Jetson, pushing a single button all day long. Now technology has once again taken the work out of exercise. I give you the Power Plate. Madonna uses it, Donatella Versace and Claudia Schiffer use it, and so should you. Thanks to the Power Plate, staying fit and healthy doesn’t require any hard work or discipline. The Power Plate’s revolutionary technology overthrows conventional wisdom regarding the human body in a coup d’etat of sweat, gym clothes and good vibrations. Why lift weights or jog when you can vibrate that flab and cellulite into oblivion in just a few minutes a day? And please take note: this is not the vibrating belt of yesteryear. We’ve come along way since the 1960s.
According to its makers, the Power Plate relies on “Advanced Vibration Technology.” Here’s their explanation of how it works:
According to the Daily Mail, the German football team used the Power Plate to train for the World Cup and so does Manchester United. An astute friend pointed out one potential flaw in these statements: exercise equipment manufacturers often send their latest products to athletic organizations. Whether or not the organizations actually continue to use them doesn’t matter. While that information is completely anecdotal at this point, I don’t find it very hard to believe. Just look at the plethora of ineffective fitness devices on the market today and those of the past (or in storage rooms, thrift stores and classifieds, for that matter). Forgive me for being cynical, but experience suggests that very few things in life don’t require hard work.

How to Avoid Foot Pain on the Elliptical Machine

Elliptical machines are some of the most popular cardio machines found in a gym. A variety of ellipticals exist on the market, including some that incorporate an arm workout along with the typical striding movement of the legs. These ellipticals have movable arms, rather than the stationary hand grips found on other elliptical machines. You must use an elliptical machine properly to avoid foot pain caused by the repetitive stepping motion.
Wear running shoes that properly support your foot. According to podiatrist Patrick J. Nunan, excessive pronation, or being flat-footed, can lead to pain in the heel. If your feet pronate, look for an anti-pronation running shoe to help adjust the foot into a position that will decrease your risk for heel pain when walking or using the elliptical trainer.
Stretch the bottom of your feet before working out on the elliptical trainer. Sit barefoot in a chair and place one foot in your lap. Interlock the fingers of one hand with the toes of the opposite foot. Use your fingers to flex your toes toward the top of your foot, making sure to feel a stretch along the bottom of your foot. Repeat on the other foot.
Plant your feet flat on the pedals of the elliptical machine. Placing the weight on your toes, or constantly using your toes to push off the elliptical with each stride will cause injury to the connective tissue on the bottom of your foot. Fitness professional Rick Kaselj says exaggerating or prolonging this propulsion phase of the step can lead to microtrauma or degeneration of the plantar fascia of the foot. The plantar fascia is the tissue that connects the fore foot to the hind foot.

How to Build Muscle After a Sleeve Gastrectomy

Gaining muscle after sleeve gastrectomy surgery might seem like an impossible task, but it can be done. In many cases, the weight you lose as a result of the surgery will reveal muscles that have developed after carrying so much extra weight for so long — a common phenomenon in the obese. Light strength training along with a proper diet can help keep your muscles toned and in shape, but you should consult your doctor before beginning any type of exercise regimen.
A vertical sleeve gastrectomy is an operation performed in cases of severe obesity that has not responded to exercise and diet. The surgeon removes about 80 to 85 percent of your stomach during the procedure, leaving the remaining part in the shape of a small banana. It is a laparoscopic procedure, which means the surgeon uses small incisions to access your stomach, as well as a small camera known as a laparoscope to guide him during the surgery. A smaller stomach limits the amount of food that can be consumed at one time, helping you feel fuller more quickly.
Immediately following your procedure, you will most likely be asked to refrain from strenuous activity for four to six weeks. After that period, you can usually begin training — after getting your doctor’s permission — using weights or by performing body resistance exercises. Start by working out with lighter weights or performing exercises that you can execute for at least one set of eight to 12 repetitions each. Work each of your major muscle groups, including your back, shoulders, arms, legs and hips. Exercise your abdomen gently. Because you will most likely be on a special liquid diet for several weeks after your surgery, you may feel weak at first. Avoid pushing yourself too hard the first few weeks and stop exercising if you feel tired or faint. Gradually work your way up to a more vigorous exercise routine over a period of several weeks.
Helping to build muscle isn’t just a matter of working your muscles. You need to have the proper diet to give your muscles the right nutrients they need to grow and function properly. One of the most important things to have in your diet, particularly after surgery, is plenty of lean protein. Lean meats, tofu, beans and low-fat dairy products are good sources for this type of protein. Work closely with your dietitian to help keep your energy up. Inform her of your workout schedule and follow the advice you are given. You may also be advised to take supplements or protein shakes along with your regular diet.
One of the biggest mistakes people make after surgery, according to the Murfreesboro Surgical Specialists, is waiting too long before starting to exercise. One thing that can help you get motivated is to hire a certified personal trainer. A trainer can create a specialized workout regimen for your needs and keep an eye out for any potential injury. In addition to strength training, a trainer can guide you in performing cardiovascular exercises and a stretching regimen to help keep you balanced.

The Advantages of Playing Learning Games with Kids

A variety of educational games for kids exist, including board games, card games, interactive puzzles and video games. Most kids enjoy the challenge of participating in games, and the process of playing some of educational activities may actually make them smarter and more capable. Games can also bring you and your child closer as you enjoy the activity together.
Particularly for toddlers and kindergartners, board games and other learning games that invite physical interaction play an important part in developing and advancing motor skills. Games such as Twister, which encourage manual dexterity and strengthen balance, help kids coordinate the body with the brain and experiment with how the two entities cooperate. Advanced video- and electronic-game systems also have the advantage of improving hand-eye coordination and visual focus.
According to Dr. Shari Nethersole, a physician at Children¡¯s Hospital in Boston, interactive games have the significant benefit of improving social skills through encouraging diplomatic and organized communication between children. When adults aren¡¯t playing, kids have to negotiate rules, follow a set system of directions and take turns to keep the game running. Learning games inspire cooperation and may even play a role in the development of conflict resolution and mediation skills.
Scholastic Parent & Child magazine points out that many educational games, particularly board games, have the power to improve children¡¯s focus and lengthen their attention spans. Kids who easily get frustrated and might quit other activities without seeing quick results might tend to stick with games for longer periods of time because of the possibility of advancement and rewards. Ultimately, sticking with a game through its course can help kids develop patience and maturity. Board games, concentration games and mathematics activities also require memorization and repetition for success. Kids who play them often learn the advantages of exercising those skills. Many tests and quizzes in every grade have similar formats to those found in board games and quiz games. Kids can better their chances of scoring well by mastering these systems and formats in a playful setting.
Dr. Mark Griffiths, a psychology professor at Nottingham Trent University, notes that many educational video games seem to improve children¡¯s self-esteem and provide a positive feeling of accomplishment. Educational games, whether they consist of solving a puzzle or completing a virtual level, offer rewards for tasks that kids have independently completed and may inspire them to take productive risks in other areas of their lives as well.
Educational games that encourage creative expression, such as Pictionary and Cranium, push kids to think outside the norm and consider atypical methods of explanation. Exploring and expanding creativity through such games can also help with nurturing self-esteem and self-acceptance, and they inspire a greater connection between personality and activity.

A List of All the Positions in Football & Their Responsibilities

The game of football gives players and fans the chance to experience exciting plays, thrilling wins and heartbreaking losses. Football has become the most popular sport in the U.S., with a fan base in countries all around the world. Fans have a greater appreciation of the game once they learn about the responsibilities of the different football positions.
One of the main aspects of football is the running game. The running backs, normally a fullback and a halfback, stand behind the offensive line. While their main duty is to run the ball down the field, running backs also catch passes and make blocks to protect the quarterback. As leaders of the offense, quarterbacks call plays, hand the ball to the running backs, and make passes to the receivers. Quarterbacks can run with the ball, especially if there’s not an open receiver down field.
Offensive linemen protect the quarterback and open holes for running backs. The center’s job is to snap the ball to the quarterback, to make blocks and to protect the quarterback. The guards and tackles make blocks for running backs and protect their quarterback while he throws passes. The tight end is an offensive lineman that blocks, but he also catches passes.
Quarterbacks throw passes to the wide receivers. The role of the receiver is to run pass routes. They use their speed and quickness to evade the other team’s defensive players as they try to get open to catch passes. Receivers also make blocks for the quarterback, for other receivers and for the running backs.
Defensive tackles, defensive ends and the nose guard make up the defensive line. The nose guard plays in the center of the defensive line. His job is to stop the run up the middle. Tackles play on either side of the nose guard and try to stop the run play. In some cases, they can break through and hurry or sack the quarterback. Defensive ends play at the end of the defensive line. Ends work to sack the quarterback and try to prevent running backs from getting farther down the field.
Linebackers are usually the best tacklers on the team. They play behind the defensive line and are responsible for defending both run and pass plays. The defensive backfield is made up of cornerbacks and safeties. Their job is to cover the wide receivers, to break up passes and to make interceptions. They also make tackles, work to stop the run and try to sack the quarterback.
The special teams, often the key to success in football games, are made up of a kicker, a punter, a long snapper and a place holder. The kicker’s job is to kick the ball off at the opening of the game and after every score. He also kicks the extra points after touchdowns, and he kicks field goals when the offense cannot score a touchdown. Place holders catch the ball from the center and hold it for the kicker as he kicks extra points or field goals. Punters kick the ball when the team does not score, and the long snapper is the center who snaps the ball during punts.


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