My Face Feels Dry After Sweating with Exercise

Dry, dehydrated facial skin due to sweating during exercise can be more than just frustrating. Some symptoms can be painful and can even promote dangerous infections it is important to understand how it can be treated and prevented.
Symptoms of facial dehydration during exercise can vary from person to person and location to location. Sweating leeches the skin of its natural lubricants and if you exercise in an air-conditioned environment you may experience dry skin more immediately. You can notice facial tightness, itchiness, peeling, skin flaking, redness and the appearance of fine cracks and lines. In addition, your skin can develop a rough texture that looks and feels bumpy or shrunken. In severe cases of dry skin, deep crack or fissures can bleed.
To treat dry facial skin after exercising, wash your face or take a lukewarm shower to wash the sweat away. Limit your shower time to less than fifteen minutes and do not use hot water — showering for excessive lengths or using hot water can dry our your skin and deplete it of its natural oils. Immediately apply a gentle moisturizer to your skin to trap in the moisture from your shower or face wash. Look for a moisturizer that is oil-free and non-comedogenic so it won¡¯t clog your pores and lead to the development of acne.
The American Osteopathic College of Dermatology recommends running a humidifier if you exercise indoors, especially in the winter when heaters can dry out the air. If you wipe sweat away from your face with a towel during exercise, wash your linens in gentle laundry detergents and avoid using irritating fabric softeners, which can dry out the skin. Drink water before, during and after you exercise. Hydrating the inside of you body can help keep your facial skin hydrated as well.
If left untreated, dehydrated facial skin can lead to more serious skin conditions. Dry skin can provoke atopic dermatitis, or eczema symptoms, leading to cracking, inflammation and redness of the skin. The hair follicles on your face can also become inflamed when your skin is dry, resulting in folliculitis. If dehydrated facial skin is cracked or has open fissures, bacteria can invade the underlying tissues, causing a bacterial infection called cellulitis.

The History of the NFL Helmet

In 1920, the American Professional Football Association was formally organized. The league had eight teams with names that included the Canton Bulldogs, Dayton Triangles and the Chicago Cardinals. At that time the concept of protective headgear consisted mainly of stuffing a thick rag under your hat. In 1922, the APFA became the National Football League and headgear at that time had evolved to include some padding, but mostly on the outside. Since then, NFL helmets have seen several milestone transformations.
The first helmets that saw widespread use in the NFL were made from leather. Basically, players wore the helmets to keep from having their hair pulled or losing an ear during a side-on collision. Lowering the head and using it as a bettering ram was reserved for the adventurous few. Leather helmets absorbed water in wet climates and the cloth inner lining absorbed perspiration. Players in the early days of the NFL often found their leather helmet had hardened to a crispy texture overnight. In 1939, the founder of the Riddell Sports Company, John Riddell, developed the first plastic shell helmet that changed NFL headgear.
The first plastic shell helmets not only had a hard outer shell, but padding around the crown of the head. The game was getting faster, owners were drafting bigger players and collisions were more intense. By the late 1940s, leather helmets were collecting dust in NFL locker rooms. Plastic helmets allowed players to lower their head without fear of being carried off the field. Riddell¡¯s innovation had changed the way NFL football was played. Team owners liked plastic helmets because the hard shell was a billboard for the team¡¯s logo. But changes in the way the game was played resulted in different types of injuries, which presented new obstacles to overcome in NFL helmet design.
Riddell¡¯s equipment designers had developed the web suspension helmet during World War II. The helmets had internal bands and straps that kept the outer plastic shell away from the player¡¯s head. The problem with the helmet was a lack of stability. Certain types of collisions dislodged the helmet and neck injuries were on the rise. After a brief stint in the league from the late 1950s to the mid 1960s, the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment determined suspension helmets were unsafe.
Other manufacturers of sports equipment, such as Wilson and Spaulding, got into the NFL helmet fray. Their headgear passed NOCSEA standards and numerous players received endorsements to promote their headgear. In 1997, San Francisco 49ers quarterback Steve Young suffered his third brain concussion in 10 months. Young switched to Riddell¡¯s newest helmet that included pads at the temples and jawbone. Soon after, eight out of 10 NFL players were wearing Riddell headgear. Today the Riddell Revolution, the Riddell Speed and the Schutt DNA-Pro are rated as the top helmets with regard to preventing concussions and neck injuries. But concussions still remain a major concern in the NFL. Rule changes and equipment designers may one day combine to eliminate the risk of head injury.

Space Collisions: Tunguska, Andromeda and You

What happens when worlds collide? A distant star suddenly burns a little brighter. NASA throws another psychedelic photo gallery up on the Web. Star junkies get in a tizzy. Like a well-meaning dad taking a whiffle bat to the groin, collisions between cosmic bodies are amusing as long as we’re not on the receiving end.
Hitting Way Too Close to Home Fortunately, Earth has only experienced one particularly frightening collision in recent history. In 1908, a 10 to 15 megaton explosion shook central Siberia, felling an estimated 80 million trees and racking the region with seismic waves. Potentially 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb that leveled Hiroshima, the Tunguska Event was most likely caused by an asteroid or comet. Luckily, the Tunguska region was sparsely populated, but if the fragment had hit the rotating Earth as little as 4 hours and 47 minutes later, it would have decimated St. Petersburg, then the capital of Russia’s empire.
Experts disagree on the possible size of the Tunguska Event fragment, with estimates varying between tennis court-sized and football field-sized. Now imagine what an object 6 miles (10 kilometers) across could do. That’s the estimate some experts give for the object that caused the K-T boundary extinction event. This impact took place 65 million years ago and likely killed off nearly every large vertebrate species on the planet, including the dinosaurs. Earth’s distant past experienced even greater impacts. Some scientists theorize that the moon is the result of a massive collision between our planet and another cosmic body.
Neighborhood Collisions Earth isn’t the only planet in our solar system to experience jarring collisions. We’ve found Martian rock on Earth, thrown from particularly hellacious impacts on the red planet. Just beyond Neptune’s orbit, fields of floating debris mark the collision point between two massive objects at some point in the planet’s distant past. The resulting explosion would have been the equivalent of 10 billion nuclear bombs going off at once. Such debris is called a collision family, and our solar system is home to at least 35 of them — most of which reside in the asteroid belt between Jupiter and Mars.
Collisions Outside the Solar System If the above cosmic mash-ups sound impressive, imagine what might transpire when stars or entire galaxies crash into one another. According to the Big Bang theory, everything in the cosmos is essentially shrapnel spinning out from the mother of all explosions. Early on in the universe’s history, cosmic collisions were more common, but they still happen. Even our own galaxy, the Milky Way, carries with it debris from ancient galactic mergers. Using space telescopes and computer modeling, astronomers have observed the aftermath of similar mergers, as well as the dance of neutron stars steadily sucking each other into a black hole-birthing collision.
A Fatal Meeting Is there another galaxy out there with our name on it? There sure is. Scientists expect the Andromeda galaxy (currently 2.5 million light years away) to collide with the Milky Way in the far-distant future.
Originally published by Discovery Space.
Robert Lamb is a senior writer and podcaster at HowStuffWorks, where he co-hosts Stuff to Blow Your Mind with Julie Douglas. He has a love for monsters, an aversion to slugs and a hankering for electronic music.
Topics in this Post: Stuff to Blow Your Mind

Do Sports Help Improve Leadership Skills?

Playing sports provides participants with opportunities to develop skills in communication and team building, according to Keith Zullig, a public health researcher. These skills enable people to function effectively as leaders, as well. Playing and coaching sports activities, such as baseball, football, running, bicycling and swimming, helps participants learn to treat other competitors with respect, identify strengths and weaknesses, develop winning strategies and manage time effectively. Participating in sports helps people develop confidence and make quick decisions necessary to succeed in leadership roles of all types.
Effective leaders assess situations and decide which leadership style to use. In a crisis situation, they typically use the autocratic leadership style. Playing sports presents many opportunities to recognize when to behave decisively. For example, when a soccer player sees a chance to score a goal, he makes the kick. In other cases, a leader needs to consult his subordinates and gather information before making a decision. Playing team sports often involves developing a strategy to confront the opponent and attack its weaknesses. Leaders of all types use these same strategies in other situations.
Company executives need to establish a vision, develop strategic objectives, hire talented employees, obtain funding to operate their business and motivate personnel. Playing and coaching sports allows a future business leader to develop team-building skills. He learns how to inspire others and focus on achieving objectives. For example, successful business project leaders use their sports experience to coordinate team-building games for their subordinates. This helps foster collaboration in the workplace. A background that includes playing team sports prepares a person to function effectively in personal and professional situations that require coordinating other people’s actions.
Playing sports helps participants learn to make decisions by observing and interpreting information quickly. Effective leaders exhibit decisive behavior. For example, a football quarterback typically has only a few seconds to decide where to throw a pass. Playing sports helps a person develop the skills and behavior necessary to succeed in a dynamic, global workplace. Additionally, by participating on a team, a player learns to develop strategies and work with his teammates to enable their victory. Playing sports prepares a leader to influence others, set realistic goals and solve problems efficiently to win a competitive advantage.
Leaders require excellent communication skills. Playing sports helps people develop the ability to work together effectively using techniques that apply in business situations, too. For example, a baseball pitcher and catcher communicate using a series of signals. Finding a way to communicate efficiently in any situation helps a leader succeed in business, too. People who play sports learn how to present their winning ideas to others. Leaders improve their leadership capacity by listening to others, and speaking and writing clearly and convincingly.

How to Clean a Moldy Leather Baseball Glove

Mold and mildew are fungi that develop in areas that are damp and in areas of low airflow. They spread through spores and are difficult to eliminate. Cleaning and conditioning are the best ways to remove mold and mildew from a baseball glove. After you clean the glove, store it properly to prevent mold and mildew from returning.
Clean off the mold. The University of Missouri Extension Service recommends a mixture of 1 cup rubbing alcohol and 1 cup water to remove mold and mildew. Dip a clean cloth into the diluted alcohol, squeeze the excess moisture from the cloth and wipe the entire glove, not just the areas where you see mold.
Dry the glove in front of a current of air. Set the glove in front of a fan or over an air register. You can dry the glove outside if the sun is out and it is breezy, but if it is overcast or the air is calm, dry the glove inside.
Wash with sudsy water if mold remains. Stubborn cases of mold and mildew may require a second treatment. Use a mild dishwashing solution to mix up some sudsy water and repeat the process, cleaning the entire glove, not just the areas where mold is present.
Use a leather conditioner made specifically for baseball gloves after it is completely dry. Start at the palm area and work the conditioner out toward the fingers, rubbing it in gently with your fingers.

Football Shotgun Snapping Drills

Neglecting your skills in the shotgun snap can lead to your team losing the game. This type of snap might appear routine, but it’s often integral to the correct execution of a play in football. In practice, players must practice this skill as much as their teammates practice running, throwing, and blocking.
The repeat snap drill helps you with your release point and accuracy on shotgun snaps. Place eight to 10 footballs in a line on the ground in front of you and position them the way you grip them when snapping. Get into the snapping position and have a teammate or coach act as quarterback as you snap footballs to him continuously. Have a second coach or teammate place the balls in front of you quickly as you snap each one. Keep practicing until your snaps become increasingly consistent and straight.
The distance snap drill is similar to the repeat snap drill, but you don’t need any teammates or coaches to help you. Place several balls on the ground in front of you. Take your time snapping them to an imaginary quarterback in the shotgun position. Take your time to focus on your approach, grip and stance when performing each snap. Snap each football as far and as straight as you can, and keep practicing until you become more consistent.
Practicing the goal post drill with your team or when you’re working on your skills alone improves your accuracy. Line up several footballs about 15 yards away from the goal post. Get into your center stance and snap each football and try to hit the goal post behind you. Pretend the goal post is the quarterback and try to hit the post around the area where his hands would be. Focus on your grip and stance when snapping each ball. As you get better and more accurate, try to snap the balls with more speed. Keep practicing until you are able to hit the goal post with almost every snap.

How to Clean Football Pads

Football pads get smelly from absorbing the player¡¯s sweat. Regular washing of the body pads keeps odor and bacteria growth down. You can cut down on the frequency of laundering pads to once or twice a week during football season if you allow the pads to dry completely after each practice. Shoulder pads can be professionally cleaned at the end of every season as they contain materials that cannot go into the wash. With the correct care, football pads stay in good shape for many seasons.
Remove sweaty pants pads from the football pants after practice or a game and set them on a towel to dry. If the football pants have sewn-in, built-in pads, hang the pants on a clothesline or over the back of a chair to dry.
Remove the belt and pads from the pants. If the football pants have non-removable, built-in pads sewn into the pants, leave the pads inside the pants and launder and dry them as one piece.
Launder the pants pads — if they’re removable — along with the belt, pants and jersey in a washing machine set on cold water, using regular bleach-free laundry detergent.
Lay the pants pads flat on a towel to air-dry, or dry pants with non-removable pads on a clothesline or over the back of a chair. Alternatively, you can dry pads and pants in a clothes dryer set on low-heat, along with the belt, pants and jersey.
Replace the pants pads and belt into the pants after drying.
Take sweaty shoulder pads out of the gear bag, once you get home from a practice or a game. Set the shoulder pads on the floor to let them dry. Drying football pads is important to reduce the growth of bacteria and mold.
Wipe dirt off shoulder pads with a rag dampened with water. Dry the shoulder pads with a dry rag after you have finished cleaning them. Remove stubborn streaks and disinfect football shoulder pads, by cleaning them with an athletic disinfectant gear cleaning solution or a household disinfectant cleaning solution labeled safe to use on plastics, following the cleaning solution manufacturer’s directions.
Take your pads to be professionally cleaned after the season is over. They will be reconditioned and sanitized. The cushions will be removed from the hard plastic shell and washed in 140 degree water and the shell will be inspected for cracks and then cleaned with an anti-bacterial solution.

Why Do Soccer Goalkeepers Wear Different Uniforms Than the Rest of the Team?

Soccer goalkeepers spend most of the game far from the action, yet they often stand out from other players due to their bright, distinctive uniforms. Some goalkeepers wear different uniforms for practical reasons, while others do it to enhance their personal style and perhaps intimidate their competitors. If you¡¯re interested in playing goal for an organized league, consult its official rule book to learn what regulations govern goalkeeper uniforms, as these can vary.
Goalkeepers¡¯ uniforms have special padding to offer protection against speedy shots. For example, a goalkeeper¡¯s shirt typically has long sleeves and special padding over the elbows, chest and shoulders to minimize the sting of a blocked shot. Goalkeepers¡¯ pants typically have light padding as well. Goalkeepers also wear long socks that cover shin guards, which protect the lower legs from blows during skirmishes near the goal.
During a game, most leagues require goalkeepers to wear uniforms that are different from those of the opposing team¡¯s goalkeeper and their own teammates. This helps the referee distinguish the goalkeeper from other players when everyone is crowded near the goal. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to handle the ball during regular game play, so being able to clearly identify the goalkeeper helps prevent mistaken declarations of illegal handballs.
Although it has not been proven to be true, there is a common belief that an attacker unconsciously shoots the ball at the brightest area of the goal. If this is true, then wearing a bright shirt increases the chance that an attacker will aim the ball directly at the goalkeeper, leading to an easy save. This is why some professional goalkeepers wear bright, garish shirts, though personal style preferences also play a role.
Most leagues allow goalies some flexibility in choice of uniform and equipment. For example, many goalies wear special gloves so they can grasp the ball firmly. Some goalkeepers prefer long pants with significant padding, while others prefer shorts that provide them greater flexibility. Goalkeepers also may choose the type of cleats they wear, which depends on league regulations, the type of playing surface and the weather.

Facts About Soccer in Mexico

The passion for soccer in Mexico makes a visit to Mexico City’s Azteca Stadium a feared occasion for rivals in CONCACAF, the regional conference overseen by FIFA, the international governing body of soccer. National teams from the United States, Canada, Caribbean islands and Central America compete for victory in front of 105,000 screaming fans. Mexico produces players able to operate at the top international level, including positions on Manchester United and Arsenal in England.
In 2006 as part of its ¡°Big Count,¡± FIFA counted nearly 8.5 million Mexican soccer players, registered and unregistered, out of a population of 107 million. Mexico places sixth worldwide in number of players, behind China, the U.S., India, Germany and Brazil. The country has 311 registered soccer clubs and 17,000 teams. Its 13,000 registered female players place it 20th in the world, behind leaders the U.S., Germany and Canada; 7,000 registered female youth players put Mexico at 17th worldwide.
The Mexican Federation of Soccer was founded in 1927. This came decades after the first school teams, consisting of students of Jesuit and Marist priests, began playing in 1897 and the first club team, of immigrant English miners, began in 1900. English players dominated the first three teams, the Orizaba, Pachuca and Reformation athletic clubs, with the first championship held in 1902. The first national team selection occurred in 1923. Mexico¡¯s first international appearance was at the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam.
Mexico played in the first World Cup in 1930, held in Uruguay. The team lost to France 4-1 in the first game. Mexico has appeared in 14 World Cups from 1930 through 2010. Mexico advanced the farthest in 1970 and 1986, when it hosted the World Cup and advanced both times to the quarterfinals. In the five World Cups from 1994 through 2010, El Tricolor or ¡°El Tri,¡± so named for its green, white and red uniform, has advanced from the group stage to knockout stage where they were eliminated. In 2014, Mexico¡¯s men¡¯s national team ranked 24th in the world and second in CONCACAF, behind the U.S. and in front of Honduras. The women¡¯s team ranks third in the region, behind the U.S. and Canada.
As with other nations where soccer is wildly popular, Mexico divides its professional system into a top division and three lower divisions. Teams are promoted and relegated depending on annual performance. The Primera Division consists of 18 teams in three groups, and includes Atlante, Pumas, Cruz Azul and the oldest club, Pachuca. The division has two half seasons, and in the playoffs the champions of the two half seasons face off against each other.
Striker Javier Hernandez poured in 20 goals in his debut season of 2010-11 for Manchester United. With a jersey that reads ¡°Chicharito,¡± Spanish for ¡°little pea,¡± Hernandez has become the most famous of Mexico¡¯s approximately 4,600 professional players. Top goal scorers, historically, for the men¡¯s national team include Jared Borgetti with 46, Cuauhtemoc Blanco with 39, Carlos Hermosillo with 35 and Luis Hernandez, with his long, dyed-blond locks, 35.

The Bull Rush Technique in Football

Used primarily by stronger defensive tackles, the bull rush is a simple technique that can be expanded to include more precise technique. Many defensive line coaches teach the bull rush, but do not allow their linemen to practice the it during drills, because of the lack of technique required to execute it. Power and explosion are the only requirements of a good bull rush, and many young players do this naturally.
The key to a successful bull rush is leverage. You cannot bull rush standing straight up. Your helmet must be lower than your blocker’s helmet. Speed rushers try to reach the quarterback by running around the pocket, and without a bull rush coming from the middle of the line, the quarterback can step up in the pocket and throw the ball. Push the pocket backwards, collapsing the space that the quarterback needs to throw the ball or escape.
Where you place your hands can make the difference between merely collapsing the pocket and sacking the quarterback. You will be lower than your opponent so that you have leverage. Drive your hands up and into the chest plate of your blocker’s shoulder pads, grabbing the outside edges with your thumbs pointing up. Push with your arms to extend the defender to an arm’s length. Hand fighting is a common activity for defensive linemen. Both you and the offensive player want your hands and arms on the inside of the offensive lineman’s pads.
Although it is true that most bull rush artists are defensive tackles who use brute force to push the pocket backwards, several defensive ends have begun using the bull rush as a counter move against offensive tackles who are overplaying their speed rush. After several attempts to run around the edge of the offensive tackle you sprint upfield at the snap at least two steps, though some ends will take four steps because of a smaller stride length. Planting on your outside foot you convert what looks like a speed rush into a bull rush by running directly at the offensive tackle’s outside armpit. This direct path should allow you to collapse the pocket. An added benefit to this technique is that you often have at least two or three steps to build up to full speed before you collide with the tackle, who must stop his backward momentum and is likely stationary on contact.
Any pass rush technique can be stopped, and the bull rush is often the easiest to defeat, especially if you know that it is coming. However, in order to stop a strong bull rush, an offensive lineman must overcommit himself, providing openings in several other areas. If your momentum stops during your bull rush, slide to either direction and turn your hips into the lineman slightly. Quickly and violently pull the lineman past you before continuing to the quarterback. Another option is to spin, most likely to the outside of the lineman. Simply swing your inside leg around behind your body, turning your back to the lineman. As you turn, squat lower to improve your balance, and violently swing both arms. Your inside arm will increase the speed of your spin, while the outside arm will cross between you and your blocker, knocking his hands off of you in the process.

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